Thermoeconomics Thermoeconomics, also referred to as biophysical economics, is a school of heterodox economics that applies the laws of thermodynamics to economic theory. The term "thermoeconomics" was coined in 1962 by American engineer Myron Tribus, Thermoeconomics can be thought of as the statistical physics of economic value. Basis Thermoeconomics is based on the proposition that the role of energy in biological evolution should be defined and understood through the second law of thermodynamics but in terms of such economic criteria as productivity, efficiency, and especially the costs and benefits (or profitability) of the various mechanisms for capturing and utilizing available energy to build biomass and do work. Thermodynamics Thermoeconomists maintain that human economic systems can be modeled as thermodynamic systems. Economic systems See also References ^ Jump up to: a b Sieniutycz, Stanislaw; Salamon, Peter (1990). Further reading
Économie de don Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. L'économie du don est le support profond de l'échange entre les individus, fonde les bases de toute activité sociale, et contribue à la production de norme sociale. Pour les anthropologues, notamment pour Marcel Mauss dans son « Essai sur le don. Pour les économistes comme François Perroux, l'échange peut consister en un « pseudo-don » (le donateur donne pour gagner ultérieurement, dans le cadre d'une offre supposant une obligation de contrepartie immédiate ou différée sous forme de dette ou de prestation) ou un « don pour donner » (je donne sans contrepartie exigée ou attendue explicitement par le donateur). Don et sociétés traditionnelles[modifier | modifier le code] Cette différence de perspective peut expliquer pour une part pourquoi, par exemple, dès les premières rencontres entre Européens et tribus indiennes, s'est jouée une incompréhension entre cultures, qui a pu conduire à la guerre et même à la disparition des Indiens.
World economy The world economy, or global economy, generally refers to the economy, which is based on economies of all of the world's countries' national economies. Also global economy can be seen as the economy of global society and national economies – as economies of local societies, making the global one. It can be evaluated in various kind of ways. It is inseparable from the geography and ecology of Earth, and is therefore something of a misnomer, since, while definitions and representations of the "world economy" vary widely, they must at a minimum exclude any consideration of resources or value based outside of the Earth. It is common to limit questions of the world economy exclusively to human economic activity, and the world economy is typically judged in monetary terms, even in cases in which there is no efficient market to help valuate certain goods or services, or in cases in which a lack of independent research or government cooperation makes establishing figures difficult.
Open Collaboration - The Next Economic Paradigm I’ve dedicated a lot of research over the last few years to understanding the deep trends that will define the next economy. As I’ve written elsewhere, the global economy goes through a creative-destructive cycle every 50 years. And now we’re in the midst of a collapsing paradigm that is soon to be replaced by something new. In this article, I will explain what the new paradigm is and how it will impact every sector of society — including business, government, education, and basic research. This systemic shutdown requires a new paradigm for economic production, one that has been incubating in the minds of lead innovators for several years now and is just beginning to get recognized as the next model for the burgeoning new economy. The new model is the Open Collaboration Paradigm. This graphic provides a schematic representation to show how deeply the shift will go: In a global economy based on open collaboration, we will see a radical departure from old institutional models.
Microeconomics This is in contrast to macroeconomics, which involves the "sum total of economic activity, dealing with the issues of growth, inflation, and unemployment." Microeconomics also deals with the effects of national economic policies (such as changing taxation levels) on the aforementioned aspects of the economy. Particularly in the wake of the Lucas critique, much of modern macroeconomic theory has been built upon 'microfoundations'—i.e. based upon basic assumptions about micro-level behavior. Assumptions and definitions Microeconomic theory progresses by defining a competitive budget set which is a subset of the consumption set. The utility maximization problem is the heart of consumer theory. The utility maximization problem is a simple constrained optimization problem in which an individual seeks to maximize utility subject to a budget constraint. The theory of supply and demand usually assumes that markets are perfectly competitive. Microeconomic topics Monopoly
Instaurer une gouvernance écologique avec l’holacratie Rapport de force, pulsions de l’ego, quête de pouvoir, autocratie : voici ce qui domine dans la majorité des groupes (entreprises, associations) de notre société. Pourtant, des modes de gouvernance existent proposant une alternative à cette façon d'être et de faire. Qu'est-ce que l'holacratie ? L'holacratie qui provient des mots grecs « holos » désignant « une entité qui est à la fois un tout et une partie d’un tout » et de « kratos » signifiant « pouvoir ». Il s’agit donc de donner le pouvoir de gouvernance à l’organisation elle-même plutôt qu’aux egos de ses membres. En effet, l’holacratie est un système de gouvernance qui s’appuie sur des principes innovants et opérationnels pour permettre de faire émerger l’essence, la capacité d’innovation et le potentiel collectif de l’organisation en la libérant des peurs et des ambitions individuelles. Quel impact sur le territoire ? Instaurer l'holacratie dans une organisation permet de : Comment instaurer l'holacratie en organisation ? 1. 3.
Informal sector The informal sector or informal economy is that part of an economy that is not taxed, monitored by any form of government or included in any gross national product (GNP), unlike the formal economy. Other terms used to refer to the informal sector can include the black market, the shadow economy, the underground economy, the agora, and System D. Associated idioms include "under the table", "off the books" and "working for cash". Definition The original use of the term ‘informal sector’ is attributed to the economic development model put forward by W. The term is also useful in describing and accounting for forms of shelter or living arrangements that are similarly unlawful, unregulated, or not afforded protection of the state. Informality, both in housing and livelihood generation has often been seen as a social ill, and described either in terms of what participant’s lack, or wish to avoid. History Statistics Estimated size of countries' informal economy
New Rules for the New Economy 1) Embrace the Swarm. As power flows away from the center, the competitive advantage belongs to those who learn how to embrace decentralized points of control. 2) Increasing Returns. As the number of connections between people and things add up, the consequences of those connections multiply out even faster, so that initial successes aren't self-limiting, but self-feeding. 3) Plentitude, Not Scarcity. 4) Follow the Free. 5) Feed the Web First. 6) Let Go at the Top. 7) From Places to Spaces. 8) No Harmony, All Flux. 9) Relationship Tech. 10) Opportunities Before Efficiencies. ...disequilibrium, fragmentation, uncertainty, churn, and relativism, the anchors of meaning and value are in short supply. In the great vacuum of meaning, in the silence of unspoken values, in the vacancy of something large to stand for, something bigger than oneself, technology--for better or worse--will shape our society. Because values and meaning are scarce today, technology will make our decisions for us.
Consumer spending Macroeconomic factors affecting spending Taxes Taxes are a tool in the adjustment of the economy. Tax policies designed by governments affect consumer groups, net consumer spending and consumer confidence. Underlying tax manipulation as a stimulant or suppression of consumer spending is an equation for GDP. Consumer sentiment Consumer sentiments are the attitudes of households and other entities toward the economy and the health of the fiscal markets, and they are a strong constituent of consumer spending. Government economic stimulus In times of economic trouble or uncertainty, the government often tries to rectify the issue by distributing economic stimuli, often in the form of rebates or checks. Oil Oil is an extremely valuable and vital resource to economies and societies everywhere. Luxury consumer spending in the United States Luxury goods Debt Consumerism Data United States See also References