Balance of trade The commercial balance or net exports (sometimes symbolized as NX), is the difference between the monetary value of exports and imports of output in an economy over a certain period, measured in the currency of that economy. It is the relationship between a nation's imports and exports. A positive balance is known as a trade surplus if it consists of exporting more than is imported; a negative balance is referred to as a trade deficit or, informally, a trade gap. The balance of trade is sometimes divided into a goods and a services balance. Understand- Balance of Trade Trade, in general connotation, means the purchase and sales of commodities. Policies of early modern Europe are grouped under the heading mercantilism. Definition The balance of trade forms part of the current account, which includes other transactions such as income from the net international investment position as well as international aid. Factors that can affect the balance of trade include:
How Hitler defied the bankers Many people take joy in saying Wall Street and Jewish bankers "financed Hitler." There is plenty of documented evidence that Wall Street and Jewish bankers did indeed help finance Hitler at first, partly because it allowed the bankers to get rich (as I will describe below) and partly in order to control Stalin. However, when Germany broke free from the bankers, the bankers declared a world war against Germany. When we look at all the facts, the charge that "Jews financed Hitler" becomes irrelevant. When Hitler came to power, Germany was hopelessly broke. Private currency speculators caused the German mark to plummet, precipitating one of the worst runaway inflations in modern times. Nothing like this had ever happened before - the total destruction of the national currency, plus the wiping out of people's savings and businesses. The projected cost of these various programs was fixed at one billion units of the national currency. Canadian researcher Dr. Rakovsky said: Like the U.S.
Unemployment Unemployment occurs when people are without work and actively seeking work. The unemployment rate is a measure of the prevalence of unemployment and it is calculated as a percentage by dividing the number of unemployed individuals by all individuals currently in the labor force. During periods of recession, an economy usually experiences a relatively high unemployment rate. According to International Labour Organization report, more than 197 million people globally or 6% of the world's workforce were without a job in 2012. There remains considerable theoretical debate regarding the causes, consequences and solutions for unemployment. Classical economics, New classical economics, and the Austrian School of economics argue that market mechanisms are reliable means of resolving unemployment. Definitions, types, and theories On the other hand, cyclical unemployment, structural unemployment, and classical unemployment are largely involuntary in nature. Full employment
Fund accounting NC State Treasurer's office, 1890 The label, fund accounting, has also been applied to investment accounting, portfolio accounting or securities accounting – all synonyms describing the process of accounting for a portfolio of investments such as securities, commodities and/or real estate held in an investment fund such as a mutual fund or hedge fund. Investment accounting, however, is a different system, unrelated to government and nonprofit fund accounting. Overview Nonprofit organizations and government agencies have special requirements to show, in financial statements and reports, how money is spent, rather than how much profit was earned. A school system, for example, receives a grant from the state to support a new special education initiative, another grant from the federal government for a school lunch program, and an annuity to award teachers working on research projects. State and local government funds Governmental funds include the following.
Voluntary sector The voluntary sector or community sector (also non-profit sector or "not-for-profit" sector) is the sphere of social activity undertaken by organizations that are not for profit and non-governmental. This sector is also called the third sector, in reference to the public sector and the private sector. Civic sector or social sector are other terms for the sector, emphasizing its relationship to civil society. Given the diversity of organizations that comprise the sector, Peter Frumkin prefers "non-profit and voluntary sector". Country-specific France Discourse on the "third sector" began in the 1970s in France as a result of the crisis in the welfare state. United Kingdom The Cabinet Office of the British government until 2010 had an Office of the Third Sector that defined the "third sector" as "the place between State and (the) private sector India Israel Significance to society and the economy Sub-sectors Concerns See also Examples:
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Government debt Government debt (also known as public debt, national debt and sovereign debt) is the debt owed by a central government. (In federal states, "government debt" may also refer to the debt of a state or provincial, municipal or local government.) By contrast, the annual "government deficit" refers to the difference between government receipts and spending in a single year, that is, the increase of debt over a particular year. Government debt is one method of financing government operations, but it is not the only method. Governments can also create money to monetize their debts, thereby removing the need to pay interest. But this practice simply reduces government interest costs rather than truly canceling government debt, and can result in hyperinflation if used unsparingly. As the government draws its income from much of the population, government debt is an indirect debt of the taxpayers. History The sealing of the Bank of England Charter (1694) By country Risk
Crowdfunding Crowdfunding is the practice of funding a project or venture by raising monetary contributions from a large number of people, typically via the internet. One early-stage equity expert described it as “the practice of raising funds from two or more people over the internet towards a common Service, Project, Product, Investment, Cause, and Experience, or SPPICE.” The crowdfunding model is fueled by three types of actors: the project initiator who proposes the idea and/or project to be funded; individuals or groups who support the idea; and a moderating organization (the "platform") that brings the parties together to launch the idea. In 2013, the crowdfunding industry grew to be over $5.1 billion worldwide. History Types The Crowdfunding Centre's May 2014 report identified the existence of two primary types of crowdfunding: Rewards-based Equity Debt-based Litigation Charity Role of the crowd Crowdfunding platforms Origins Press
Inflation In economics, inflation is a sustained increase in the general price level of goods and services in an economy over a period of time. When the price level rises, each unit of currency buys fewer goods and services. Consequently, inflation reflects a reduction in the purchasing power per unit of money – a loss of real value in the medium of exchange and unit of account within the economy. A chief measure of price inflation is the inflation rate, the annualized percentage change in a general price index (normally the consumer price index) over time. The opposite of inflation is deflation. History Annual inflation rates in the United States from 1666 to 2004. Historically, infusions of gold or silver into an economy also led to inflation. The adoption of fiat currency by many countries, from the 18th century onwards, made much larger variations in the supply of money possible. Related definitions Measures Other common measures of inflation are: Effects where