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Barter

Barter
An 1874 newspaper illustration from Harper's Weekly, showing a man engaging in barter: offering chickens in exchange for his yearly newspaper subscription. The inefficiency of barter in archaic society has been used by economists since Adam Smith to explain the emergence of money, the economy, and hence the discipline of economics itself.[2] However, no present or past society has ever been seen through ethnographic studies to use pure barter without any medium of exchange, nor the emergence of money from barter.[3] Since the 1830s, direct barter in western market economies has been aided by exchanges which frequently utilize alternative currencies based on the labour theory of value, and designed to prevent profit taking by intermediators. Examples include the Owenite socialists, the Cincinnati Time store, and more recently Ithaca HOURS (Time banking) and the LETS system. Economic theory[edit] Adam Smith on the origin of money[edit] Limitations[edit] Absence of common measure of value Related:  Economic Theory of Value

Επιταγμένοι μπορεί – Υποταγμένοι ποτέ! Αναδημοσιεύουμε το κείμενο της συλλογικότητας "Ταξικό Μέτωπο - Πρωτοβουλία εργαζομένων στους χώρους του Μετρό" "Πέμπτη 17 Ιανουαρίου – Παρασκευή 25 Ιανουαρίου. Εννέα μέρες που σημάδεψαν τον κόσμο του Μετρό. Ξεκινώντας η απεργία την Πέμπτη σίγουρα ελάχιστοι, ίσως και κανένας, θα φανταζόντουσαν τις εξελίξεις που θα ακολουθούσαν. Τα προβλήματα που υπήρχαν στο εσωτερικό του σωματείου αλλά και η γενικότερη απογοήτευση μεταξύ μας είχαν σαν αποτέλεσμα να φαντάζει δεδομένη η εφαρμογή του ενιαίου φτωχολογίου. Ειδικότερα, από τη Δευτέρα και μετά πλήθος κόσμου, εργαζόμενοι και αλληλέγγυοι, γέμιζαν το χώρο του αμαξοστασίου δίπλα στην πύλη στην Εθνική Οδό. Φτάνοντας λοιπόν στην Πέμπτη 24 Ιανουαρίου και ενώ η κούραση, σωματική, ψυχολογική αλλά και οικονομική έχει ενταθεί, το Δ.Σ του σωματείου εμμένει σε τηλεοπτικά διαγγέλματα και παίζει τα ρέστα του σε μια απονενοημένη προσπάθεια πίεσης προς το υπουργείο για να βρεθεί μια μέση λύση στο «πρόβλημα».

Communism Communism is represented by a variety of schools of thought, which broadly include Marxism, anarchism and the political ideologies grouped around both. All these hold in common the analysis that the current order of society stems from its economic system, capitalism, that in this system, there are two major social classes: the proletariat - who must work to survive, and who make up a majority of society - and the capitalist class - a minority who derive profit from employing the proletariat, through private ownership of the means of production, and that political, social and economic conflict between these two classes will trigger a fundamental change in the economic system, and by extension a wide-ranging transformation of society. The primary element which will enable this transformation, according to communism, is the social ownership of the means of production. Because of historical peculiarities, communism is commonly erroneously equated to Marxism-Leninism in mainstream usage.

Barter System History The Past and Present If you've ever swapped one of your toys with a friend in return for one of their toys, you have bartered. Bartering is trading services or goods with another person when there is no money involved. This type of exchange was relied upon by early civilizations. There are even cultures within modern society who still rely on this type of exchange. What is a Barter System? A barter system is an old method of exchange. History of Bartering The history of bartering dates all the way back to 6000 BC. Due to lack of money, bartering became popular in the 1930s during the Great Depression. Disadvantages and Advantages of Bartering Just as with most things, there are disadvantages and advantages of bartering. On the positive side, there are great advantages to bartering. Another advantage of bartering is that you do not have to part with material items. By Kelly Anderson

Local exchange trading system A local exchange trading system (also local employment and trading system or local energy transfer system; abbreviated to LETS or LETSystem) is a locally initiated, democratically organised, not-for-profit community enterprise that provides a community information service and record transactions of members exchanging goods and services by using the currency of locally created LETS Credits.[1] History[edit] Michael Linton originated the term "local exchange trading system" in 1983 and for a time ran the Comox Valley LETSystems in Courtenay, British Columbia.[2] The system he designed was intended as an adjunct to the national currency, rather than a replacement for it,[3] although there are examples of individuals who have managed to replace their use of national currency through inventive usage of LETS. A number of people have problems adjusting to the different ways of operating using a LETSystem. Criteria[edit] Of these criteria, "equivalence" is the most controversial. Operation[edit]

Mediterranean Sea Sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean between Europe, Africa and Asia The Mediterranean Sea is a sea connected to the Atlantic Ocean, surrounded by the Mediterranean Basin and almost completely enclosed by land: on the north by Southern Europe and Anatolia, on the south by North Africa and on the east by the Levant. Although the sea is sometimes considered a part of the Atlantic Ocean, it is usually referred to as a separate body of water. Geological evidence indicates that around 5.9 million years ago, the Mediterranean was cut off from the Atlantic and was partly or completely desiccated over a period of some 600,000 years (the Messinian salinity crisis) before being refilled by the Zanclean flood about 5.3 million years ago. The Mediterranean Sea has an average depth of 1,500 m (4,900 ft) and the deepest recorded point is 5,267 m (17,280 ft) in the Calypso Deep in the Ionian Sea. Names and etymology[edit] Wadj-Ur, or Wadj-Wer, ancient Egyptian name of the Mediterranean Sea History[edit]

Da Roma ad Atene: guai a chi ci tocca! Dettagli di redazione Ultima modifica il Domenica, 13 Ottobre 2013 17:45 Ogni sgombero in Grecia è un attacco contro tutti. [For Greek version, see below] In questi giorni il governo Samaràs sta sferrando un attacco senza precedenti al movimento greco. Sabato scorso ad Atene e in molte altre città greche migliaia di persone sono scese in piazza per dimostrare solidarietà a tutti gli spazi occupati e per intimare al governo e alla polizia di tenere giù le mani dal movimento. Proprio mentre il neoliberalismo mostra il suo volto più feroce attraverso la crisi che morde i paesi del sud Europa - saccheggiando la vita delle persone, cancellando diritti fondamentali, costringendo alla fame e alla povertà, imponendo ricatti e miseria - la violenza del capitale si salda con quella delle forze repressive dello stato, che senza mezzi termini provano a colpire le radici dei movimenti sociali. Da Roma ad Atene, guai a chi ci tocca. Il futuro siamo noi, l'Europa delle lotte, e nessuno può fermarci

Capitalism The degree of competition, role of intervention and regulation, and scope of state ownership varies across different models of capitalism.[5] Economists, political economists, and historians have taken different perspectives in their analysis of capitalism and recognized various forms of it in practice. These include laissez-faire capitalism, welfare capitalism, crony capitalism and state capitalism; each highlighting varying degrees of dependency on markets, public ownership, and inclusion of social policies. The extent to which different markets are free, as well as the rules defining private property, is a matter of politics and policy. Many states have what are termed capitalist mixed economies, referring to a mix between planned and market-driven elements.[6] Capitalism has existed under many forms of government, in many different times, places, and cultures.[7] Following the demise of feudalism, capitalism became the dominant economic system in the Western world. Etymology[edit]

Barter Exchange System Thirdly, the barter system lacks any satisfactory unit to engage in contracts involving future payments. Contracts requiring future payments are commonplace in any exchange economy - we enter into agreements regarding wages, salaries, interests, rents etc. and other prices extending over a period of time. In a barter economy future payments would have to be stated in terms of specific goods or services. This leads to the following problems: There could be disagreement regarding the quality of the goods or services to be repaid.There could be disagreement regarding which specific commodity would be used for repayment.The risk exists that the commodity to be repaid could increase or decrease markedly in value over the duration of the contract, thus benefiting the creditor or the debtor respectively. Fourthly, the barter system does not provide for any method of storing generalised purchasing power.

ΡΟΔΙΑ - Δίκτυο Ανταλλαγών Ρεθύμνου - Αρχικη Division of labour The division of labour is the specialization of cooperating individuals who perform specific tasks and roles. Because of the large amount of labour saved by giving workers specialized tasks in Industrial Revolution-era factories, some classical economists as well as some mechanical engineers such as Charles Babbage were proponents of division of labour. Also, having workers perform single or limited tasks eliminated the long training period required to train craftsmen, who were replaced with lesser paid but more productive unskilled workers.[1] Historically, an increasingly complex division of labour is associated with the growth of total output and trade, the rise of capitalism, and of the complexity of industrialised processes. In contrast to division of labour, division of work refers to the division of a large task, contract, or project into smaller tasks—each with a separate schedule within the overall project schedule. Theorists[edit] Plato[edit] Xenophon[edit] Ibn Khaldun[edit]

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