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Programming language

Programming language
The earliest programming languages preceded the invention of the digital computer and were used to direct the behavior of machines such as Jacquard looms and player pianos.[1] Thousands of different programming languages have been created, mainly in the computer field, and many more still are being created every year. Many programming languages require computation to be specified in an imperative form (i.e., as a sequence of operations to perform), while other languages utilize other forms of program specification such as the declarative form (i.e. the desired result is specified, not how to achieve it). Definitions[edit] A programming language is a notation for writing programs, which are specifications of a computation or algorithm.[2] Some, but not all, authors restrict the term "programming language" to those languages that can express all possible algorithms.[2][3] Traits often considered important for what constitutes a programming language include: Function and target Abstractions Related:  BMs

Programming paradigm A programming paradigm is a fundamental style of computer programming, a way of building the structure and elements of computer programs. Capablities and styles of various programming languages are defined by their supported programming paradigms; some programming languages are designed to follow only one paradigm, while others support multiple paradigms. There are six main programming paradigms: imperative, declarative, functional, object-oriented, logic and symbolic programming.[1][2][3] Overview[edit] Overview of the various programming paradigms[4]:5 In object-oriented programming, programmers can think of a program as a collection of interacting objects, while in functional programming a program can be thought of as a sequence of stateless function evaluations. Programming paradigms can also be compared with programming models which are abstractions of computer systems. History[edit] Machine code[edit] Procedural languages[edit] All these languages follow the procedural paradigm.

Kenneth E. Iverson - Wikipedia Life[edit] Ken Iverson was born on December 17, 1920 near Camrose, a town in central Alberta, Canada. His parents were farmers who came to Alberta from North Dakota; his ancestors came from Trondheim, Norway.[2] During World War II, he served first in the Canadian Army and then in the Royal Canadian Air Force.[2][3] He received a B.A. degree from Queen’s University and the M.Sc. and Ph.D. degrees from Harvard University. In his career, he worked for Harvard, IBM, I. P. Education[edit] Iverson started school on 1 April 1926 in a one-room school,[3] initially in Grade 1, promoted to Grade 2 after 3 months and to Grade 4 by the end of June 1927. After the war, Iverson enrolled in Queen’s University in Kingston, Ontario, taking advantage of government support for ex-servicemen and under threat from an Air Force buddy who said he would "beat his brains out if he did not grasp the opportunity".[3] He graduated in 1950 as the top student with a Bachelor’s degree in Mathematics and Physics.[2] I.

Computer programming Overview[edit] Within software engineering, programming (the implementation) is regarded as one phase in a software development process. There is an on-going debate on the extent to which the writing of programs is an art form, a craft, or an engineering discipline.[3] In general, good programming is considered to be the measured application of all three, with the goal of producing an efficient and evolvable software solution (the criteria for "efficient" and "evolvable" vary considerably). The discipline differs from many other technical professions in that programmers, in general, do not need to be licensed or pass any standardized (or governmentally regulated) certification tests in order to call themselves "programmers" or even "software engineers." Because the discipline covers many areas, which may or may not include critical applications, it is debatable whether licensing is required for the profession as a whole. History[edit] Some of the earliest computer programmers were women.

Floor and ceiling functions - Wikipedia Floor and ceiling functions Floor function Ceiling function and gives as output the greatest integer that is less than or equal to . to the least integer that is greater than or equal to Notation[edit] Carl Friedrich Gauss introduced the square bracket notation for the floor function in his third proof of quadratic reciprocity (1808).[2] This remained the standard[3] in mathematics until Kenneth E. and in his 1962 book A Programming Language.[4][5] Both notations are now used in mathematics;[6] this article follows Iverson. or just using normal reversed brackets ]x[.[10] The fractional part is the sawtooth function, denoted by for real x and defined by the formula[11] For all x, Examples[edit] Typesetting[edit] Definition and properties[edit] In the following formulas, x and y are real numbers, k, m, and n are integers, and is the set of integers (positive, negative, and zero). Floor and ceiling may be defined by the set equations Then may also be taken as the definition of floor and ceiling. and: , and where

Object-oriented programming Overview[edit] Rather than structure programs as code and data, an object-oriented system integrates the two using the concept of an "object". An object has state (data) and behavior (code). Objects correspond to things found in the real world. The goals of object-oriented programming are: Increased understanding.Ease of maintenance.Ease of evolution. The overall understanding of the system is increased because the semantic gap—the distance between the language spoken by developers and that spoken by users—is lessened. Object-orientation takes this to the next step. In addition to providing ease of maintenance, encapsulation and information hiding provide ease of evolution as well. An object-oriented program usually contains different types of objects, each corresponding to a real-world object or concept such as a bank account, a hockey player, or a bulldozer. History[edit] Fundamental features and concepts [edit] A survey by Deborah J. Benjamin C.

Organic Maca Powder The ancient Incans used maca root as far back as two thousand years ago, when it was revered not only as a staple crop, but as a potent medicinal herb. Folktales about this high nutrient food describe how Incan warriors consumed large quantities of the product before going into battle to increase energy and strength. In 2015 1,300 tons of Maca was exported around the world. Recent scientific research demonstrates Maca's ability to impart energy, to balance and assist the hormone system and to act as a natural aphrodisiac (particularly for men). It also contains a huge amount of nutrients, minerals and all essential amino acids. Research published in 2009 measured cycling improvements in athletes over a 14 day period of taking Maca. Maca as a mood enhancer Proven By Science: A study published in 2006 looked at the effects of all three Maca types on mood and depression. Rather than providing hormones to the body, Maca acts an an adaptogen, meaning it responds to each body differently.

Imperative programming The term is used in opposition to declarative programming, which expresses what the program should accomplish without prescribing how to do it in terms of sequences of actions to be taken. Functional and logic programming are examples of a more declarative approach. Imperative, procedural, and declarative programming[edit] Procedural programming could be considered a step towards declarative programming. A programmer can often tell, simply by looking at the names, arguments and return types of procedures (and related comments), what a particular procedure is supposed to do, without necessarily looking at the details of how it achieves its result. Declarative programming is a non-imperative style of programming in which programs describe their desired results without explicitly listing commands or steps that must be performed. In logical programming languages, programs consist of logical statements, and the program executes by searching for proofs of the statements. Overview[edit]

Thomas Jefferson - Wikipedia 3rd President of the United States Thomas Jefferson (April 13, [O.S. April 2] 1743 – July 4, 1826) was an American Founding Father who was the principal author of the Declaration of Independence and later served as the third President of the United States from 1801 to 1809. Jefferson was mainly of English ancestry, born and educated in colonial Virginia. As President, Jefferson pursued the nation's shipping and trade interests against Barbary pirates and aggressive British trade policies. Jefferson, while primarily a planter, lawyer and politician, mastered many disciplines, which ranged from surveying and mathematics to horticulture and mechanics. Although regarded as a leading spokesman for democracy and republicanism in the era of the Enlightenment, Jefferson's historical legacy is mixed. Early life and career Education, early family life Wren Building (rear), College of William & Mary where Jefferson studied 1765 was an eventful year in Jefferson's family. Lawyer and House of Burgesses

Syntax (programming languages) In computer science, the syntax of a computer language is the set of rules that defines the combinations of symbols that are considered to be a correctly structured document or fragment in that language. This applies both to programming languages, where the document represents source code, and markup languages, where the document represents data. The syntax of a language defines its surface form.[1] Text-based computer languages are based on sequences of characters, while visual programming languages are based on the spatial layout and connections between symbols (which may be textual or graphical). Documents that are syntactically invalid are said to have a syntax error. Computer language syntax is generally distinguished into three levels: Words – the lexical level, determining how characters form tokens;Phrases – the grammar level, narrowly speaking, determining how tokens form phrases;Context – determining what objects or variables names refer to, if types are valid, etc. 'a' + 1 a + b

eegads there's a lot to learn. anyone know of an intro video for this? lol by 5footshelflife Jan 31

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