Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms "physiological", "safety", "belongingness" and "love", "esteem", "self-actualization", and "self-transcendence" to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through. Maslow's theory was fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality. The hierarchy remains a very popular framework in sociology research, management training and secondary and higher psychology instruction. Hierarchy Physiological needs Safety needs Safety and Security needs include:
Digital Citizenship: It’s More Than a Poster! Let me begin with a huge disclaimer.. These posters are not intended to substitute for true, open and honest discussions with kids, nor are they meant to replace the daily modeling that should be taking place in showing kids how to be a great digital citizen through our own actions. I’ve always been open with students. Connectivism Connectivism is a hypothesis of learning which emphasizes the role of social and cultural context. Connectivism is often associated with and proposes a perspective similar to Vygotsky's 'zone of proximal development' (ZPD), an idea later transposed into Engeström's (2001) Activity theory. The relationship between work experience, learning, and knowledge, as expressed in the concept of ‘connectivity, is central to connectivism, motivating the theory's name. It is somewhat similar to Bandura's Social Learning Theory that proposes that people learn through contact. The phrase "a learning theory for the digital age" indicates the emphasis that connectivism gives to technology's effect on how people live, communicate and learn. Nodes and links The central aspect of connectivism is the metaphor of a network with nodes and connections. In this metaphor, a node is anything that can be connected to another node such as an organization, information, data, feelings, and images.
Learning Transfer as Preparedness We Should Be Doing More Than Teaching Digital Citizenship The quote above is one of my favorites about digital citizenship. My classroom is a global classroom but I don’t “teach” digital citizenship. My students are actually digital citizens and we learn about the digital world by being a part of it. I feel most of the issues kids have online with bullying, racism and inappropriate posting come from a lack of experience in the digital world. If you think about it the digital world is a very abstract concept, especially for young kids. How do you plan to give your class experiences being digital citizens this year? Here is the map of connections my class made last year Like this: Like Loading...
Cybergogue: A Critique of Connectivism as a Learning Theory Background Having explored a “learning theory” that George Siemens (2005; 2006a) and Stephen Downes (2005; 2007) developed for a networked and digital world called connectivism. Fascinating and extensive conversations in the blogosphere and in educational journals debate whether connectivism is a new learning theory or whether it is merely a digital extension of constructivism. Siemens and Downes initially received increasing attention in the blogosphere in 2005 when they discussed their ideas concerning distributed knowledge. An extended discourse ensued in and around the status of connectivism as a learning theory for the digital age. Introduction A lamentable disadvantage of theories is also a satisfactory advantage of theories—that is, they are wont to change over time. What is Connectivism? At the dawn of the 21st Century, a new educational framework was developed called connectivism. The General Nature of Learning Theory 1. Defining Learning Theory 1. Instructional Theory Table
Connectivism must abandon its ideas? | x28’s new Blog Two Catalan authors see Three problems with the connectivist conception of learning and challenge its core ideas (p. 8): “the idea that knowledge is distributed in the network”, “the idea of learning and knowing as individual, interpretative recognition of connective patterns”, and “the idea of learning as the association of subsymbolic entities (neurons)”. I am not convinced. I recall: Knowledge of a society lies in connections between people or resources; knowledge of an individual lies in connections between neurons. In particular, the knowledge of concepts lies in the connections between the words, i.e. between the neuronal connection patterns that make up each of these words. Re: The Learning paradox How does a learner recognize what they do not know before? The authors ask (p. 5) “How do you recognize a pattern if you do not already know that a specific configuration of connections is a pattern?” “a pattern of connections (outer and neural) which becomes salient in the network,” vs.
Digital Media Can Change Learning. Here's An Example. Digital Media Can Change Learning Digital media is really more powerful than we’re giving it credit for. And it already gets a lot of credit. While “social” media gets all the praise, social media is itself digital, with the digital versions of films, music, magazines, images, and other stuff holding inherent characteristics that allow it to be shared, saved, and searched in ways that physical media simply can’t. This is not to say that digital media doesn’t have limitations of its own, but it’s easy to miss how simply being digital has changed the information, entertainment, and connectivity we crave as human beings. While there is obvious overlap between the two, digital literacy is different than standard literacy frankly because understanding is about context and the context of digital and social media is almost impossibly wide and often frustratingly whimsical. Why Digital Media Works In Learning And so much of this approachability has to do with tone.
Massive open online course Poster, entitled "MOOC, every letter is negotiable", exploring the meaning of the words "Massive Open Online Course" A massive open online course (MOOC /muːk/) is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web. In addition to traditional course materials such as filmed lectures, readings, and problem sets, many MOOCs provide interactive user forums to support community interactions among students, professors, and teaching assistants (TAs). MOOCs are a recent and widely researched development in distance education which were first introduced in 2006 and emerged as a popular mode of learning in 2012. Early MOOCs often emphasized open-access features, such as open licensing of content, structure and learning goals, to promote the reuse and remixing of resources. Some later MOOCs use closed licenses for their course materials while maintaining free access for students. History What is a MOOC? Precursors Early approaches
Bill Gates: ‘It would be great if our education stuff worked but…’ Bill Gates (Ben Stansall/AFP/Getty Images) “It would be great if our education stuff worked, but that we won’t know for probably a decade.” That’s what Bill Gates said on Sept. 21 (see video below) about the billions of dollars his foundation has plowed into education reform during a nearly hour-long interview he gave at Harvard University. Hmmm. In the past he sounded pretty sure of what he was doing. What should policymakers do? Actually, that’s not an approach any educator I know would think is a good idea, but Gates had decided that class size doesn’t really matter. Now he says that the success of his experiments on public education won’t be known for a decade, but we already know that evaluating teachers by student test scores is a bad idea. Education reform should not be driven by private philanthropists with their own agendas, however well-intentioned. I don’t know. Education references are sprinkled throughout the interview.