Maslow's hierarchy of needs Maslow's hierarchy of needs, represented as a pyramid with the more basic needs at the bottom Maslow's hierarchy of needs is a theory in psychology proposed by Abraham Maslow in his 1943 paper "A Theory of Human Motivation" in Psychological Review. Maslow subsequently extended the idea to include his observations of humans' innate curiosity. His theories parallel many other theories of human developmental psychology, some of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans. Maslow used the terms "physiological", "safety", "belongingness" and "love", "esteem", "self-actualization", and "self-transcendence" to describe the pattern that human motivations generally move through. Maslow's theory was fully expressed in his 1954 book Motivation and Personality. The hierarchy remains a very popular framework in sociology research, management training and secondary and higher psychology instruction. Hierarchy Physiological needs Safety needs Safety and Security needs include:
Connectivism Connectivism is a hypothesis of learning which emphasizes the role of social and cultural context. Connectivism is often associated with and proposes a perspective similar to Vygotsky's 'zone of proximal development' (ZPD), an idea later transposed into Engeström's (2001) Activity theory. The relationship between work experience, learning, and knowledge, as expressed in the concept of ‘connectivity, is central to connectivism, motivating the theory's name. It is somewhat similar to Bandura's Social Learning Theory that proposes that people learn through contact. The phrase "a learning theory for the digital age" indicates the emphasis that connectivism gives to technology's effect on how people live, communicate and learn. Nodes and links The central aspect of connectivism is the metaphor of a network with nodes and connections. In this metaphor, a node is anything that can be connected to another node such as an organization, information, data, feelings, and images.
Noble In recent years changes in universities, especially in North America, show that we have entered a new era in higher education, one which is rapidly drawing the halls of academe into the age of automation. Automation — the distribution of digitized course material online, without the participation of professors who develop such material — is often justified as an inevitable part of the new “knowledge–based” society. It is assumed to improve learning and increase wider access. In practice, however, such automation is often coercive in nature — being forced upon professors as well as students — with commercial interests in mind. This paper argues that the trend towards automation of higher education as implemented in North American universities today is a battle between students and professors on one side, and university administrations and companies with “educational products” to sell on the other.
Learning Transfer as Preparedness Cybergogue: A Critique of Connectivism as a Learning Theory Background Having explored a “learning theory” that George Siemens (2005; 2006a) and Stephen Downes (2005; 2007) developed for a networked and digital world called connectivism. Fascinating and extensive conversations in the blogosphere and in educational journals debate whether connectivism is a new learning theory or whether it is merely a digital extension of constructivism. Siemens and Downes initially received increasing attention in the blogosphere in 2005 when they discussed their ideas concerning distributed knowledge. An extended discourse ensued in and around the status of connectivism as a learning theory for the digital age. Introduction A lamentable disadvantage of theories is also a satisfactory advantage of theories—that is, they are wont to change over time. What is Connectivism? At the dawn of the 21st Century, a new educational framework was developed called connectivism. The General Nature of Learning Theory 1. Defining Learning Theory 1. Instructional Theory Table
Technology is the Answer: What was the Question? -: UNESCO Education Education is one of UNESCO’s principal fields of activities. Since its creation in 1945, the Organization has worked to improve education worldwide believing it to be key to social and economic development. The Organization aims to help build a sustainable world with just societies that value knowledge, promote peace, celebrate diversity and defend human rights, achieved by providing Education for All (EFA). Its close links with education ministries and other partners in 193 countries place UNESCO in a key position to press for action and change. The Education Sector comprises some 400 staff members worldwide. The sector is under the authority of the Assistant Director-General for Education. Headquarters in ParisSome 150 staff members work in the Education Sector in Paris.
Connectivism must abandon its ideas? | x28’s new Blog Two Catalan authors see Three problems with the connectivist conception of learning and challenge its core ideas (p. 8): “the idea that knowledge is distributed in the network”, “the idea of learning and knowing as individual, interpretative recognition of connective patterns”, and “the idea of learning as the association of subsymbolic entities (neurons)”. I am not convinced. I recall: Knowledge of a society lies in connections between people or resources; knowledge of an individual lies in connections between neurons. In particular, the knowledge of concepts lies in the connections between the words, i.e. between the neuronal connection patterns that make up each of these words. Re: The Learning paradox How does a learner recognize what they do not know before? The authors ask (p. 5) “How do you recognize a pattern if you do not already know that a specific configuration of connections is a pattern?” “a pattern of connections (outer and neural) which becomes salient in the network,” vs.
Massive open online course Poster, entitled "MOOC, every letter is negotiable", exploring the meaning of the words "Massive Open Online Course" A massive open online course (MOOC /muːk/) is an online course aimed at unlimited participation and open access via the web. In addition to traditional course materials such as filmed lectures, readings, and problem sets, many MOOCs provide interactive user forums to support community interactions among students, professors, and teaching assistants (TAs). MOOCs are a recent and widely researched development in distance education which were first introduced in 2006 and emerged as a popular mode of learning in 2012. Early MOOCs often emphasized open-access features, such as open licensing of content, structure and learning goals, to promote the reuse and remixing of resources. Some later MOOCs use closed licenses for their course materials while maintaining free access for students. History What is a MOOC? Precursors Early approaches
Modeling Social Media in Groups, Communities, and Networks Vance Stevens Petroleum Institute, Abu Dhabi, UAE Abstract This article views social networking as practiced distinctly in groups, communities, and networks. Drawing from experience coordinating a teachers’ community of practice for the past decade, the evolution of what was initially a group into a community of practice is illustrated, as well as how social media enables one CoP to interact with others to become part of a distributed learning network. Participants in the networked communities continually leverage each other’s professional development, and what is modeled and practiced in transactions there is applied later in their teaching practices.Recidivism is a problem in technology training for education. Teachers can be shown how to use social media, but unless they use it themselves they are unlikely to change their practices. Living with paradigm shift Another incident illustrates this shift. A third token of paradigm shift is my new Kindle, which I both love and hate.
Bill Gates: ‘It would be great if our education stuff worked but…’ Bill Gates (Ben Stansall/AFP/Getty Images) “It would be great if our education stuff worked, but that we won’t know for probably a decade.” That’s what Bill Gates said on Sept. 21 (see video below) about the billions of dollars his foundation has plowed into education reform during a nearly hour-long interview he gave at Harvard University. Hmmm. In the past he sounded pretty sure of what he was doing. What should policymakers do? Actually, that’s not an approach any educator I know would think is a good idea, but Gates had decided that class size doesn’t really matter. Now he says that the success of his experiments on public education won’t be known for a decade, but we already know that evaluating teachers by student test scores is a bad idea. Education reform should not be driven by private philanthropists with their own agendas, however well-intentioned. I don’t know. Education references are sprinkled throughout the interview.