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A heterarchy is a system of organization where the elements of the organization are unranked (non-hierarchical) or where they possess the potential to be ranked a number of different ways.[1] Definitions of the term vary among the disciplines: in social and information sciences, heterarchies are networks of elements in which each element shares the same "horizontal" position of power and authority, each playing a theoretically equal role. But in biological taxonomy, the requisite features of heterarchy involve, for example, a species sharing, with a species in a different family, a common ancestor which it does not share with members of its own family. This is theoretically possible under principles of "horizontal gene transfer." A heterarchy may be parallel to a hierarchy, subsumed to a hierarchy, or it may contain hierarchies; the two kinds of structure are not mutually exclusive. General principles[edit] Information studies[edit] Numerous observers[who?] David C. See also[edit] Related:  People and concepts

Simone Weil Simone Weil (French: [simɔn vɛj]; 3 February 1909 – 24 August 1943) was a French philosopher, Christian mystic, and political activist. Weil's life was marked by an exceptional compassion for the suffering of others; at the age of six, for instance, she refused to eat sugar after she heard that soldiers fighting in World War I had to go without. She died from tuberculosis during World War II, possibly exacerbated by malnutrition after refusing to eat more than the minimal rations that she believed were available to soldiers at the time. Taking a path that was unusual among twentieth-century left-leaning intellectuals, she became more religious and inclined towards mysticism as her life progressed. Weil wrote throughout her life, though most of her writings did not attract much attention until after her death. In the 1950s and 1960s, her work became famous on continental Europe and throughout the English-speaking world. Biography[edit] Simone Weil at age 13. Early life[edit] Leon Trotsky.

Holism For the suffix, see holism. Holism (from Greek ὅλος holos "all, whole, entire") is the idea that natural systems (physical, biological, chemical, social, economic, mental, linguistic, etc.) and their properties should be viewed as wholes, not as collections of parts. This often includes the view that systems function as wholes and that their functioning cannot be fully understood solely in terms of their component parts.[1][2] Reductionism may be viewed as the complement of holism. Reductionism analyzes a complex system by subdividing or reduction to more fundamental parts. For example, the processes of biology are reducible to chemistry and the laws of chemistry are explained by physics. Social scientist and physician Nicholas A. History[edit] The idea has ancient roots. The concept of holism played a pivotal role in Baruch Spinoza's philosophy[8][9] and more recently in that of Hegel[10][11] and Edmund Husserl.[12][13] In science[edit] General scientific status[edit] In anthropology[edit]

Happy Birthday, Brain Pickings: 7 Things I Learned in 7 Years of Reading, Writing, and Living by Maria Popova Reflections on how to keep the center solid as you continue to evolve. UPDATE: The fine folks of Holstee have turned these seven learnings into a gorgeous letterpress poster inspired by mid-century children’s book illustration. On October 23, 2006, I sent a short email to a few friends at work — one of the four jobs I held while paying my way through college — with the subject line “brain pickings,” announcing my intention to start a weekly digest featuring five stimulating things to learn about each week, from a breakthrough in neuroscience to a timeless piece of poetry. “It should take no more than 4 minutes (hopefully much less) to read,” I promised. This was the inception of Brain Pickings. Illustration by Maurice Sendak from 'I'll Be You and You Be Me' by Ruth Krauss, 1954. Illustration from 'Inside the Rainbow: Russian Children's Literature 1920-35.' Allow yourself the uncomfortable luxury of changing your mind. Donating = Loving Share on Tumblr

Holarchy Different meanings[edit] David Spangler uses the term in a different meaning: "In a hierarchy, participants can be compared and evaluated on the basis of position, rank, relative power, seniority, and the like. But in a holarchy each person’s value comes from his or her individuality and uniqueness and the capacity to engage and interact with others to make the fruits of that uniqueness available."[3] Holarchy in Multiagent Systems[edit] Multiagent systems are systems composed of autonomous software entities. Janus Multiagent Platform is a software platform able to execute holarchies of agents. See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit] Brief essay on holarchies

Introduction to Political Philosophy About the Course This course is intended as an introduction to political philosophy as seen through an examination of some of the major texts and thinkers of the Western political tradition. Three broad themes that are central to understanding political life are focused upon: the polis experience (Plato, Aristotle), the sovereign state (Machiavelli, Hobbes), constitutional government (Locke), and democracy (Rousseau, Tocqueville). The way in which different political philosophies have given expression to various forms of political institutions and our ways of life are examined throughout the course. View class sessions » Course Structure This Yale College course, taught on campus twice per week for 50 minutes, was videotaped for Open Yale Courses in Fall 2006. The Open Yale Courses Series For more information about Professor Smith’s book Political Philosophy, click here. Course Materials Download all course pages [zip - 10MB] Video and audio elements from this course are also available on: Texts

Category of being Categorical distinctions[edit] The common or dominant ways to view categories as of the end of the 20th century. via bundle theory as bundles of properties – categories reflect differences in thesevia peer-to-peer comparisons or dialectics – categories are formed by conflict/debatevia value theory as leading to specific ends – categories are formed by choosing endsvia conceptual metaphors as arising from characteristics of human cognition itself – categories are found via cognitive science and other study of that biological system Any of these ways can be criticized for... In process philosophy, this last is the only possibility, but historically philosophers have been loath to conclude that nothing exists but process. Categorization of existence[edit] As bundles of properties[edit] For example, if we take the concept of a black square, bundle theory would suggest that all that can be said to exist are the properties of a black square. As formed by debate[edit] Intuition as evasion[edit] [edit]

Exploring Concept A concept is an abstraction or generalization from experience or the result of a transformation of existing concepts. The concept reifies all of its actual or potential instances whether these are things in the real world or other ideas. Concepts are treated in many if not most disciplines whether explicitly such as in psychology, philosophy, etc. or implicitly such as in mathematics, physics, etc. In metaphysics, and especially ontology, a concept is a fundamental category of existence. In contemporary philosophy, there are at least three prevailing ways to understand what a concept is:[1][See talk page] Concepts as mental representations, where concepts are entities that exist in the brain.Concepts as abilities, where concepts are abilities peculiar to cognitive agents.Concepts as abstract objects, where objects are the constituents of propositions that mediate between thought, language, and referents. Etymology[edit] Abstract objects[edit] Issues in concept theory[edit] Ontology[edit]

Anarchism and Taoism Anarchism is usually considered a recent, Western phenomenon, but its roots reach deep in the ancient civilizations of the East. The first clear expression of an anarchist sensibility may be traced back to the Taoists in ancient China from about the sixth century BC. Indeed, the principal Taoist work, the Tao te ching, may be considered one of the greatest anarchist classics. The Taoists at the time were living in a feudal society in which law was becoming codified and government increasingly centralized and bureaucratic. The Taoists and the Confucians were both embedded in ancient Chinese culture. But whereas the Taoists were principally interested in nature and identified with it, the Confucians were more worldly- minded and concerned with reforming society. Although it has helped shape Chinese culture as much as Buddhism and Confucianism, Taoism by its very nature never became an official cult. The principal exponent of Taoism is taken to be Lao Tzu, meaning ‘old Philosopher’.

A priori and a posteriori The terms a priori ("from the earlier") and a posteriori ("from the later") are used in philosophy (epistemology) to distinguish two types of knowledge, justification, or argument: A priori knowledge or justification is independent of experience (for example "All bachelors are unmarried"). Galen Strawson has stated that an a priori argument is one in which "you can see that it is true just lying on your couch. There are many points of view on these two types of knowledge, and their relationship is one of the oldest problems in modern philosophy. The terms a priori and a posteriori are primarily used as adjectives to modify the noun "knowledge" (for example, "a priori knowledge"). Examples[edit] The intuitive distinction between a priori and a posteriori knowledge (or justification) is best seen in examples. A priori Consider the proposition, "If George V reigned for at least four days, then he reigned for more than three days." A posteriori Analyticity and necessity[edit] History[edit] [edit]

Anarchism and Other Essays: Anarchism: What It Really Stands For THE history of human growth and development is at the same time the history of the terrible struggle of every new idea heralding the approach of a brighter dawn. In its tenacious hold on tradition, the Old has never hesitated to make use of the foulest and cruelest means to stay the advent of the New, in whatever form or period the latter may have asserted itself. Nor need we retrace our steps into the distant past to realize the enormity of opposition, difficulties, and hardships placed in the path of every progressive idea. The rack, the thumbscrew, and the knout are still with us; so are the convict's garb and the social wrath, all conspiring against the spirit that is serenely marching on. Anarchism could not hope to escape the fate of all other ideas of innovation. To deal even remotely with all that is being said and done against Anarchism would necessitate the writing of a whole volume. What, then, are the objections? Destruction and violence! But what about human nature?

HOLISTIC MATHEMATICS Welcome to the Holistic Mathematics homepage. This presents a dynamic new vision of mathematics, that greatly enlarges its scope by integrating it coherently with psychological experience. I intend to post regular contributions illustrating this approach. I hope to show how holistic mathematics can be used to give a radically original interpretation of disciplines such as psychology, physics and economics. For the more traditional approach to Mathematics check out my new site on Number Magic. Index New Address Introduction About the Author Recent Articles Integral (Holistic) Mathematics Integral Psychology Integral Economics Integral Physics The Science of Integration extended discussion* Transforming Voyage book* The Number Paradigms book* Original Vision book* Ken Wilber Forum Plans for the Future Questions and Responses Peter's Number Page