Slavery in the colonial United States - Wikipedia Enslaved populations in the Thirteen Colonies in 1770. The origins of slavery in the colonial United States (1600–1776) are complex and there are several theories that have been proposed to explain the trade. It was largely tied to European colonies' need for labor, especially plantation agricultural labor in their Caribbean sugar colonies operated by Great Britain, France, Spain, and the Dutch Republic. Mudsill Theory Speech to the U.S. Senate, March 4, 1858 In all social systems there must be a class to do the menial duties, to perform the drudgery of life. That is, a class requiring but a low order of intellect and but little skill. Its requisites are vigor, docility, fidelity. Such a class you must have, or you would not have that other class which leads progress, civilization, and refinement.
Emancipation Emancipation is any of various efforts to procuring political rights or equality, often for a specifically disenfranchised group, or more generally in discussion of such matters. Emancipation stems from ēx manus capere ('take out the hand'). Among others, Karl Marx discussed political emancipation in his 1844 essay "On the Jewish Question", although often in addition to (or in contrast with) the term human emancipation.
Atlantic slave trade The Atlantic slave trade or transatlantic slave trade took place across the Atlantic Ocean from the 16th through to the 19th centuries. The vast majority of those enslaved that were transported to the New World were West Africans from the central and western parts of the continent, sold by West Africans to Western European slave traders, or by direct European capture to the Americas. The numbers were so great that Africans who came by way of the slave trade became the most numerous Old-World immigrants in both North and South America before the late 18th century. Far more slaves were taken to South America than to the north. The South Atlantic economic system centered on producing commodity crops, and making goods and clothing to sell in Europe, and increasing the numbers of African slaves brought to the New World.
Slavery among Native Americans in the United States - Wikipedia Slavery among Native Americans in the United States includes slavery by Native Americans as well as slavery of Native Americans roughly within the present-day United States. Tribal territories and the slave trade ranged over present-day borders. Some Native American tribes held war captives as slaves prior to and during European colonization, some Native Americans were captured and sold by others into slavery to Europeans, and a small number of tribes, in the late eighteenth and nineteenth centuries, adopted the practice of holding slaves as chattel property and held increasing numbers of African-American slaves. Pre-contact forms of slavery were generally distinct from the form of chattel slavery developed by Europeans in North America during the colonial period. European influence greatly changed slavery used by Native Americans. As they raided other tribes to capture slaves for sales to Europeans, they fell into destructive wars among themselves, and against Europeans.
The Impending Crisis of the South The Impending Crisis of the South: How to Meet It is a book written by Hinton Rowan Helper of North Carolina, which he self-published in New York, 1857. It was a strong attack on slavery as inefficient and a barrier to the economic advancement of whites. The book was widely distributed by Horace Greeley and other antislavery leaders, and infuriated Southern leaders. The book condemned slavery, but did not take what Helper considered to be the ineffectually sentimental or moralistic abolitionist approach (as seen in Uncle Tom's Cabin, 1852): Hinton explicitly wrote "not with reference, except in a very slight degree, to its humanitarian or religious aspects
Drapetomania Drapetomania was a supposed mental illness described by American physician Samuel A. Cartwright in 1851 that caused black slaves to flee captivity.:41 Today, drapetomania is considered an example of pseudoscience,:2 and part of the edifice of scientific racism. Etymology Al Jolson—The Greatest Entertainer of the First Half of the 20th Century Record keeping was hit and miss and life perilous in Jewish village of Srednik near Kaunas in Lithuania, then part of Tsarist Russia around 1886 so Asa Yoelson was never sure about his birthday. Years later he would pick May 26 out of a hat to serve and it has been dutifully reported by biographers ever since. He was the son of a Rabbi and Canter and had three surviving siblings including a brother Hirsh. His father Moses immigrated to the United States in 1891 and was able to send for his family when he found employment at Washington, D.C.’s Talmud Torah Synagogue in 1894. Asa and Hirsh became fascinated with American music and show business hanging out on streets outside taverns and music halls. By 1897 they were performing for spare change on the sidewalks.
The Southern Argument for Slavery Southern slaveholders often used biblical passages to justify slavery. Those who defended slavery rose to the challenge set forth by the Abolitionists. The defenders of slavery included economics, history, religion, legality, social good, and even humanitarianism, to further their arguments. Alleged Lunatics' Friend Society The Alleged Lunatics' Friend Society was an advocacy group started by former asylum patients and their supporters in 19th century Britain. The Society campaigned for greater protection against wrongful confinement or cruel and improper treatment, and for reform of the lunacy laws. The Society is recognized today as a pioneer of the psychiatric survivors movement. Background There was concern in the United Kingdom in the 19th century about wrongful confinement in private madhouses, or asylums, and the mistreatment of patients, with tales of such abuses appearing in newspapers and magazines.
Prof Joe Ciolino Letter for Al Jolson Way A defense in support of Community Board 5 recommendation for RE-NAMING PART OF BROADWAY IN HONOR OF AL JOLSON Written for His Honorable Mayor Michael R. Bloomberg Presented by Joseph Ciolino, Asst. Professor, NYU; Lecturer Music History, New School University. Development & impact of the Cotton Gin Cotton’s impact upon history is surprisingly significant. Europeans first encountered cotton in their trading missions to India, where they were impressed with the beauty and softness of Indian fabric. Cotton remained a luxury good in Europe until the United States began growing it in mass amounts in the nineteenth century; but the United States could not have become the “king of cotton” without the invention of one simple machine: the cotton gin. Invented by Eli Whitney, the cotton gin allowed for a full-scale cotton revolution, which had a profound impact on the history of antebellum America. In the South, the gin led to a boom in cotton growth that created a greater reliance on slave labor, which contrasted with the North’s industrialization and anti-slavery sentiments. The economic divergence led to differing views on the subject of slavery, and these differing views helped to create tensions between these two regions, which threatened to split the country apart.
Elizabeth Packard Elizabeth Parsons Ware Packard Elizabeth Parsons Ware Packard (28 December 1816 – 25 July 1897) was an advocate for the rights of women and people accused of insanity. Life At the insistence of her parents, Elizabeth Parsons Ware married minister Theophilus Packard on 21 May 1839. The couple had six children. The family resided in Kankakee County, Illinois and, for many years, appeared to have a peaceful marriage. Jewish Currents Al Jolson (Asa Yoelson), American’s most famous entertainer in the 1930s and the star of the first full-length talking movie, The Jazz Singer (1927), was born in Lithuania on this date in 1886 (he actually did not know his date of birth but selected May 26th). He came to the U.S. in 1894 and lost his mother shortly after. By 1902, he was a circus and burlesque singer; between 1911 and his retirement from the stage in 1926, he starred in a series of smash hits on Broadway, including George Gershwin’s Swanee. Jolson was a hammy, high-energy performer, and worked regularly in blackface — which many today view as racist and ridiculous — but Jolson insisted that it symbolized his identification with African-American suffering and music.