2004 - Marine Biotoxins The views expressed in this publication are those of the author(s) and do not necessarily reflect the views of the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations. All rights reserved. Reproduction and dissemination of material in this document for educational or other non-commercial purposes are authorised without any prior written permission from copyright holders provided the source is fully acknowledged. Contents Acknowledgements Foreword Abbreviations 1. 2. 2.1 Chemical structures and properties 2.2 Methods of analysis 2.3 Source organism(s) and habitat 2.4 Occurrence and accumulation in seafood 2.5 Toxicity of PSP toxins 2.6 Prevention of PSP intoxication 2.7 Cases and outbreaks of PSP 2.8 Regulations and monitoring 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 9.1 Conclusions 9.2 Recommendations References FAO Technical Papers Back Cover
BFR 14/12/10 Antibiotic resistances in the food chain (BfR-Press release 18/2010 of 2010-12-13) BfR publishes two reports on the resistance situation for different groups of bacteria The National Reference Laboratories for Salmonella and Antibiotic Resistance at the Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) tested Salmonella isolates from diagnostic submissions for antibiotics resistance and assessed them according to epidemiological criteria between 2000 and 2008. The isolates originated mainly from animals and foods but also from feeds and the environment. Of the 33,625 isolates, 48% were resistant to at least one and 35% even resistant to more than one class of antibiotics. Salmonella are amongst the most frequent causes of food infections in humans. BfR has assessed the extent of resistances to antibiotics by means of epidemiological criteria which are valid throughout the EU. In some cases resistances of Salmonella to the particularly important antibiotics groups were even very frequent. About the BfR Up
Disease Listing, Marine Toxins, General Information | CDC Bacterial, Mycotic Diseases Marine Toxins Frequently Asked Questions What are marine toxins? Marine toxins are naturally occurring chemicals that can contaminate certain seafood. What sort of diseases do marine toxins cause? The most common diseases caused by marine toxins in United States in order of incidence are scombrotoxic fish poisoning, ciguatera poisoning, paralytic shellfish poisoning, neurotoxic shellfish poisoning and amnesic shellfish poisoning. Scombrotoxic fish poisoning also known as scombroid or histamine fish poisoning, is caused by bacterial spoilage of certain finfish such as tuna, mackerel, bonito, and, rarely, other fish. Ciguatera poisoning or ciguatera is caused by eating contaminated tropical reef fish. Paralytic shellfish poisoning is caused by a different dinoflagellate with a different toxin, than that causing ciguatera poisoning. Amnesic shellfish poisoning is a rare syndrome caused by a toxin made by a microscopic, red-brown, salt-water plant, or diatom called Nitzchia pungens. Back to Top
BRITISH VETERINARY ASSOCIATION 15/11/12 Measures to tackle antimicrobial resistance must be science based says BVA Political measures to reduce antimicrobial resistance in Europe and the UK are in danger of becoming kneejerk reactions that are not based on sound science, the British Veterinary Association (BVA) has warned ahead of European Antibiotic Awareness Day (18 November). The BVA has told vets that they must use antimicrobials responsibly and be seen to use them responsibly or risk having restrictions imposed on their use by legislators using the precautionary principle. To mark the Awareness Day BVA President Peter Jones delivered a webinar to over 300 veterinary surgeons titled “Resisting antimicrobials – are we acting responsibly?” hosted by The Webinar Vet and available to view at www.thewebinarvet.com/bva-webinars. The BVA also successfully lobbied for the responsible use of medicines to be enshrined in the new Code of Professional Conduct to which all veterinary surgeons in the UK must adhere. “These calls do not reflect the available science. Further Information
Scientific Opinion of the CONTAM Panel: Marine Biotoxins in Shellfish – Palytoxin group EFSA Journal 2009; 7(12):1393 [40 pp.]. doi:10.2903/j.efsa.2009.1393 Type: Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel On request from: European Commission Question number: EFSA-Q-2006-065G Adopted: 26 November 2009 Published: 15 December 2009 Affiliation: European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), Parma, Italy The EFSA Panel on Contaminants in the Food Chain (CONTAM Panel) assessed the risks to human health related to the presence of palytoxin (PlTX)-group toxins in shellfish. PlTX-group toxins have mainly been detected in soft corals of the genus Palythoa and in algae of the genus Ostreopsis. Blooms of Ostreopsis spp. have recently been reported in some European countries. © European Food Safety Authority, 2009 Palytoxin (PlTX)-group toxins are marine biotoxins which have mainly been detected in marine zoanthids (soft corals) of the genus Palythoa and benthic dinoflagellates of the genus Ostreopsis.
EURACTIV 15/01/14 Les produits alimentaires suédois sont allégés en antibiotiques Les agriculteurs suédois utilisent le moins d'antibiotiques de toute l'agriculture de l’UE, selon l'Agence européenne des médicaments. Selon un rapport de l'Agence européenne des médicaments (EMA), la Suède a recours à 13,6 milligrammes d'antibiotiques par kilo de viande en moyenne. Ce niveau est le plus bas dans l’Union européenne. La Finlande, la Lettonie et la Lituanie emboîtent le pas avec respectivement 24, 35 et 42 mg/kg. Les agriculteurs chypriotes se retrouvent en queue de peloton : ils utilisent 408 mg d'antibiotiques par kilo de viande, soit un peu plus que l'Italie (370 mg/kg), l'Espagne (249 mg/kg) et l'Allemagne (211 mg/kg). À l’échelle européenne, les agriculteurs de Norvège et d'Islande ont le moins recours aux antibiotiques dans leur production alimentaire : ils utilisent respectivement 3,7 mg et 6,3 mg/kg. « L'agriculture dans l'UE est plus industrialisée et il y a plus de mouvements de produits alimentaires et d'animaux entre les pays.
Scientific Opinion of the CONTAM Panel: Biotoxines marines dans les coquillages – L’acide domoïque Type: Opinion of the Scientific Committee/Scientific Panel Question number: EFSA-Q-2006-065H Adopted: 02 July 2009 Published: 24 July 2009 Domoic acid (DA) and its isomers are marine biotoxins causing amnesic shellfish poisoning (ASP) in humans. Symptoms of ASP include gastrointestinal symptoms (vomiting, diarrhoea or abdominal cramps) and/or neurological symptoms (confusion, loss of memory, or other serious signs such as seizure or coma) occurring within 24-48 hours after consuming contaminated shellfish. DA is a water-soluble cyclic amino acid mainly produced by marine red algae of the genus Chondria and diatoms of the genus Pseudo-nitschia. The first confirmed outbreak of ASP occurred in Canada in 1987 and was related to mussels affected by a bloom of the Pseudonitzschia f. multiseries. DA isomers have also been detected in shellfish in the United States and in a number of European countries. Following oral administration DA shows low systemic absorption.
BFR 19/01/15 The challenge of antimicrobial resistance - a holistic consideration and the latest insights into risk perception The BfR organises a forum on antimicrobial resistance in the context of the International Green Week in Berlin Antimicrobial resistance increasingly poses a challenge to public health worldwide. When antibiotics are used, for example in a hospital or a production animal facility, this can assist the spread of resistant bacteria. It is becoming more and more difficult to treat infectious diseases with existing antibiotics. The Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) is holding a forum entitled “The challenge of antimicrobial resistance - a holistic consideration and the latest insights into risk perception” on 22 January 2015. “According to a recent representative survey conducted by the BfR, more than half of the German population believes that antimicrobial resistance is predominantly caused by animal farming”, says Professor Dr Dr Andreas Hensel. About the BfR Up
Harmful Algae 5(3) · April 2006 Potentially toxic and harmful microalgae from coastal waters of the Campania region (Tyrrhenian Sea, Mediterranean Sea) Abstract A total number of 40 potentially toxic microalgae and 5 taxa causing discolorations have been identified along the coasts of the Campania region (South Tyrrhenian Sea, Mediterranean Sea). This number is based on results of over 20 years of research at a coastal station in the Gulf of Naples, 4 years of monitoring activity along the Campania coasts and of a series of scattered and sporadic observations. THE PARLIAMENT 05/02/15 PM+: Monitoring and transparency key to tackling animal antibiotic resistance Animal health products play an important role in safeguarding public and animal health, and within the veterinarian's toolkit are antibiotics. They are essential to treat bacterial diseases in animals, but they must – like in human medicine – be handled responsibly. It is vital that antibiotics, like all medicines, are used with care and discrimination to help maintain their effectiveness and limit resistance development, which has been cause for concern across the world. The European commission requested three of its agencies to look into the 'consumption of antimicrobial agents and occurrence of antimicrobial resistance in bacteria from humans and food-producing animals'. "It is vital that antibiotics, like all medicines, are used with care and discrimination to help maintain their effectiveness and limit resistance development" It looks at data from across European monitoring networks which gather information from the EU member states, Iceland, Norway and Switzerland.
UNIVERSITY OF IDAHO - Webinaire : FOOD TOXICOLOGY. Au sommaire: Lecture 19 - Marine Toxins in Food Seafood safety. Lecture 1 - Introduction to Food Toxicology Course requirements, motivation for undertaking this course of study. Lecture 2 - History of US Food Regulation Historical overview of the interface of food and government. Lecture 3 - Concepts of Toxicology Core concepts in toxicology that form the basis of further study. Lecture 4 - Pesticide Residues in Food A review and update on the science and regulation of food-use pesticides. Lecture 5 - Dose-Response Relationships "Solely the dose determines that a thing is not a poison" -Paracelsus. Lecture 6 - Absorption of Toxicants Where chemistry meets biology. Lecture 7 - Distribution and Storage of Toxicants Pathway analysis of intoxication. Lecture 8 - Biotransformation and Elimination of Toxicants The guys in the white hats fight back. Lecture 9 - Target Organ Toxicity Neurotoxic, nephrotoxic, hepatotoxic... Lecture 10 - Teratogenesis, Mutagenesis and Carcinogenesis Toxic reactions with the molecules of life. Lecture 11 - Food Allergy Midterm Exam I Final Exam
Toxics 2014, 2(2), 188-225; Human and Veterinary Antibiotics Used in Portugal—A Ranking for Ecosurveillance 1 Department of Veterinary Medicine-Escola Universitária Vasco da Gama, Av. José R. Sousa Fernandes, Coimbra 3020-210, Portugal 2 Center for Neuroscience and Cell Biology, University of Coimbra, Largo Marquês de Pombal, Coimbra 3004-517, Portugal 3 Group of Health Surveillance, Center of Pharmaceutical Studies, University of Coimbra, Polo III, Azinhaga de Sta Comba, Coimbra 3000-548, Portugal 4 INFARMED, I.P.-National Authority of Medicines and Health Products, Lisboa 1749-004, Portugal 5 Departament of Pharmacological Sciences, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Lisbon, Lisbon 1649-003, Portugal † These authors contributed equally to this work. * Author to whom correspondence should be addressed. Received: 5 March 2014 / Revised: 23 April 2014 / Accepted: 13 May 2014 / Published: 23 May 2014 Antibiotics represent a pharmacotherapeutic group widely used in both human and veterinary medicine for which ecosurveillance has been continually recommended. MDPI and ACS Style AMA Style