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Cronyism is partiality to long-standing friends, especially by appointing them to positions of authority, regardless of their qualifications. Hence, cronyism is contrary in practice and principle to meritocracy. Cronyism exists when the appointer and the beneficiary are in social contact. Often, the appointer is inadequate to hold his or her own job or position of authority, and for this reason the appointer appoints individuals who will not try to weaken him or her, or express views contrary to those of the appointer. Politically, "cronyism" is derogatorily used.[1] Etymology[edit] The word "crony" first appeared in 18th century London, according to the Oxford English Dictionary to be derived from the Greek word chronios (χρόνιος), meaning "long-term".[2] Concept[edit] In the private sector, cronyism exists in organizations, often termed "the old boys club" or "the golden circle", again the boundary between cronyism and "networking" is difficult to delineate.[5] Notable examples[edit]

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VU to review prolific economist's work following plagiarism inquiry Details Category: News Created on Tuesday, 07 January 2014 16:42 Room for Discussion An old idea is back on the agenda: an unconditional guaranteed basic income for all, no questions asked. No more worries, but economic freedom for all, the end of poverty. A free lunch fallacy, or socio-economic paradise? Recently Rutger Bregman reinvigorated the idea of the universal basic income on Dutch television in Tegenlicht, which seems more than a trend. The international discussion on basic income has been rekindled. With technology increasing productivity to unknown heights, a new question has popped up. Kintsugi Tea bowl repaired with the Kintsugi method Kintsugi (金継ぎ?) (Japanese: golden joinery) or Kintsukuroi (金繕い?) (Japanese: golden repair) is the Japanese art of fixing broken pottery with lacquer dusted or mixed with powdered gold, silver, or platinum, a method similar to the maki-e technique.[1][2][3] As a philosophy it treats breakage and repair as part of the history of an object, rather than something to disguise.

Nepotism Nepotism is favoritism granted in politics or business to relatives. The term originated with the assignment of nephews to cardinal positions by Catholic popes and bishops. Nepotism is found in the fields of politics, entertainment, business and religion. Origins[edit] Conflict of interest The presence of a conflict of interest is independent of the occurrence of impropriety. Therefore, a conflict of interest can be discovered and voluntarily defused before any corruption occurs. A widely used definition is: "A conflict of interest is a set of circumstances that creates a risk that professional judgement or actions regarding a primary interest will be unduly influenced by a secondary interest."[1] Primary interest refers to the principal goals of the profession or activity, such as the protection of clients, the health of patients, the integrity of research, and the duties of public office. Secondary interest includes not only financial gain but also such motives as the desire for professional advancement and the wish to do favours for family and friends, but conflict of interest rules usually focus on financial relationships because they are relatively more objective, fungible, and quantifiable.

Spatial Economics - Departments & Institutes - Faculty of Economics and Business Administration About the Department of Spatial Economics The Department of Spatial Economics is engaged in many economic problems in which space plays a prominent role. The department of Spatial Economics offers insights and applications from a multi-disciplinary perspective. The 60 staff members are involved in both fundamental research as well as in national and international commissioned research. With this research, the department has gained national and international recognition, as shown by the large number of international publications and awards, the appearance of different staff members as experts in the media and the presence of various section members on the typically Dutch phenomenon of 'Economists Parade'. The Department of Spatial Economics at VU University Amsterdam is a world player in the domains of Spatial, Transport and Environmental Economics.

Tata Asset Management to Amsterdam Press release, 3 April 2012 Between 25 and 31 March 2012, the Mayor of Amsterdam, Eberhard van der Laan, led an Amsterdam Metropolitan Area trade mission to India. As a result of this, three Indian companies have already announced plans to open new offices in Amsterdam this year. They include the ICT companies KPIT Cummins and Value Lab, and the fund management company Tata Asset Management. These are just some of the direct successes of this trade mission. List of cognitive biases Illustration by John Manoogian III (jm3).[1] Cognitive biases can be organized into four categories: biases that arise from too much information, not enough meaning, the need to act quickly, and the limits of memory. Cognitive biases are tendencies to think in certain ways that can lead to systematic deviations from a standard of rationality or good judgment, and are often studied in psychology and behavioral economics. There are also controversies over some of these biases as to whether they count as useless or irrational, or whether they result in useful attitudes or behavior. For example, when getting to know others, people tend to ask leading questions which seem biased towards confirming their assumptions about the person.

In-group favoritism In-group favoritism, sometimes known as in-group–out-group bias, in-group bias, or intergroup bias, refers to a pattern of favoring members of one’s in-group over out-group members. This can be expressed in evaluation of others, allocation of resources, and many other ways.[1] For example, it has been shown that people will seek to make more internal (dispositional) attributions for events that reflect positively on groups they belong to and more external (situational) attributions for events that reflect negatively on their groups.[2] This interaction has been researched by many psychologists and linked to many theories related to group conflict and prejudice.

Why do celebrities get honorary degrees? Should the news that Sex in the City actress Kim Cattrall and Pirates of the Caribbean actor Orlando Bloom have donned funny hats and gowns to collect honorary degrees this week give pause for thought? Cattrall flew over specially from Canada to receive her honorary degree from John Moores University in Liverpool where she grew up. For Bloom it was also a return to his roots when he turned up for a presentation at the University of Kent. And yesterday we learned that three golfers – Padraig Harrington, Arnold Palmer and Tom Watson – received honorary degrees from, appropriately, the University of St Andrews. They are just the latest in a long list of similarly honoured celebrities: some have a whole heap of certificates to hang on their walls, or hide forever in a dark drawer. But who really benefits?