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Animation of the fusiform area, the area damaged in prosopagnosia. Prosopagnosia /ˌprɒsəpæɡˈnoʊʒə/ (Greek: "prosopon" = "face", "agnosia" = "not knowing"), also called face blindness,[1] is a cognitive disorder of face perception where the ability to recognize faces is impaired, while other aspects of visual processing (e.g., object discrimination) and intellectual functioning (e.g., decision making) remain intact. The term originally referred to a condition following acute brain damage (acquired prosopagnosia), but a congenital or developmental form of the disorder also exists, which may affect up to 2.5% of the population.[2] The specific brain area usually associated with prosopagnosia is the fusiform gyrus,[3] which activates specifically in response to faces. The functionality of the fusiform gyrus allows most people to recognize faces in more detail than they do similarly complex inanimate objects. There are two types of prosopagnosia: acquired and congenital (developmental). Related:  New MentatEven So MoreDisorders of sight

Prosopagnosia Research - About Prosopagnosia What is prosopagnosia? Prosopagnosia (also known as 'face blindness') refers to a severe deficit in recognizing familiar people from their face. While some people report a very selective impairment that only influences the recognition of faces, others find the deficit extends to the recognition of other stimuli, such as objects, cars, or animals. Many people also report deficits in other aspects of face processing, such as judging age or gender, recognising certain emotional expressions, or following the direction of a person's eye gaze. How does prosopagnosia affect a person's life? Some prosopagnosics cope well with the face recognition impairment, and develop elaborate compensatory mechanisms to help them function effectively in everyday life. What are the causes of prosopagnosia? Until recently, it was thought that very few people suffer from prosopagnosia. How many people are affected by prosopagnosia? As explained above, acquired prosopagnosia following brain damage is rare.

Pushing hands Pushing hands or tuishou is a name for two-person training routines practiced in internal Chinese martial arts such as Baguazhang, Xingyiquan, T'ai chi ch'uan (Taijiquan), Liuhebafa, Ch'uan Fa, Yiquan. Overview[edit] Pushing hands is said to be the gateway for students to experientially understand the martial aspects of the internal martial arts (內家 nèijiā): leverage, reflex, sensitivity, timing, coordination and positioning. History[edit] Pushing hands is said by t'ai chi's Chen family to have been created by Chen Wangting (1600-1680), the founder of the Chen-style t'ai chi ch'uan, and was originally known as hitting hands (da shou) or crossing hands (ke shou). In recent history pushing hands has become a part of modern competitive Chinese martial arts, especially those devoted to internal arts. Training pushing hands[edit] The practitioner on the right demonstrates how péng can be used to resist a push The three primary principles of movement cultivated by push hands practice are:[2]

Scotopic sensitivity syndrome Scotopic sensitivity syndrome (SSS), also known as Visual Stress, Irlen Syndrome, and Asfedia, is a condition relating to the interaction of the central nervous system and the eyes at a physiological level with light. The effects of SSS are most noticeable during activities associated with reading, but an individual with the condition may notice the condition's effects in other activities. The exact cause of SSS is currently under debate within the scientific community. In addition, the scientific community has not reached a consensus on the most efficient method for treating the condition. History[edit] In 1980 New Zealand teacher Olive Meares described the visual distortions some individuals reported when reading from white paper. Research[edit] In Australia, Irlen Syndrome was researched by Paul Whiting MA. Brain studies[edit] Theory[edit] In simple terms, the theory is that some signals from the eye are not getting to the brain intact and/or on time. Symptoms[edit] Treatment[edit]

Fusiform gyrus Kool-Aid Background[edit] Jonestown Massacre[edit] On November 18, 1978, faced with exposure of the truth about Jonestown by several defectors who had chosen to leave the commune with a visiting congressman from San Francisco, Jones ordered that members of the congressman, U.S. Representative Leo Ryan's party be killed. Jim Jones, the leader of the Peoples Temple, who had persuaded followers to move to Guyana and found the commune of Jonestown then ordered the residents to commit suicide by drinking a flavored beverage laced with potassium cyanide. Despite its reputation of being a mass suicide, the events of November 18, 1978 were a murder-suicide. It is most likely that both were used in the mass murder-suicide. Earlier usage[edit] Use[edit] In 1984, a Reagan administration appointee, Clarence M. The widespread use of the phrase with its current meaning may have begun in the late 1990s. See also[edit] References[edit] ^ Jump up to: a b Higgins, Chris (8 November 2012).

List of memory biases In psychology and cognitive science, a memory bias is a cognitive bias that either enhances or impairs the recall of a memory (either the chances that the memory will be recalled at all, or the amount of time it takes for it to be recalled, or both), or that alters the content of a reported memory. There are many different types of memory biases, including: See also[edit] [edit] ^ Jump up to: a b c d e Schacter, Daniel L. (1999). References[edit] Greenwald, A. (1980). Pride-and-ego down Pride-and-ego down is a US Army term that refers to techniques used by captors in interrogating prisoners to encourage cooperation, usually consisting of "attacking the source's sense of personal worth" and in an "attempt to redeem his pride, the source will usually involuntarily provide pertinent information in attempting to vindicate himself."[1] Official documents state that such techniques should not go "beyond the limits that would apply to an EPW [enemy prisoner of war].". US Army Definition from FM 2-22.3[edit] 8-45. 8-47. Loyalty.Technical competence.Leadership abilities.Soldierly qualities.Appearance. 8-48. See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Recovery from blindness Recovery from blindness is the phenomenon of a blind person gaining the ability to see, usually as a result of medical treatment. As a thought experiment, the phenomenon is usually referred to as Molyneux's Problem. The first published human case was reported in 1728 by the Surgeon William Cheselden. Patients who experience dramatic recovery from blindness experience significant to total agnosia, having serious confusion with their visual perception. As a thought experiment[edit] The phenomenon has often been presented in empiricism as a thought experiment, in order to describe the knowledge gained from senses, and question the correlation between different senses. John Locke, an 18th-century philosopher, speculated that if a blind person developed vision, he would not at first connect his idea of a shape with the sight of a shape. The question was originally posed to him by philosopher William Molyneux, whose wife was blind:[1] Early cases[edit] Examples and case studies[edit] Virgil[edit]

British and Irish Legal Information Institute Lagniappe A lagniappe (/ˈlænjæp/ LAN-yap) is a small gift given to a customer by a merchant at the time of a purchase (such as a 13th doughnut when buying a dozen), or more broadly, "something given or obtained gratuitously or by way of good measure."[1] The word entered English from the Louisiana French adapting a Quechua word brought in to New Orleans by the Spanish creoles. It derived from the South American Spanish phrase la yapa (referring to a free extra item, usually a very cheap one). The term has been traced back to the Quechua word yapay ('to increase; to add'). The word is chiefly used in the Gulf Coast of the United States, but the concept is practiced in many places, such as Southeast Asia, North Africa, rural France, Australia and Holland. History of the American English word[edit] Before the Spanish conquered the Inca Empire certain Quechua words entered the Spanish language. The Spanish occupation never became more than a conquest. See also[edit] References[edit] External links[edit]

Do you suffer from face blindness? Seven signs and symptoms of prosopagnosia | Human Uniqueness If you read my previous post on the role of cognitive assessment in identifying uniqueness, you’ll know that I’ve worked with a lot of folks who suffer from severe difficulties recognizing faces: a condition known as prosopagnosia or face blindness. I get a lot of emails from people who take the face recognition tests on and want to know what sorts of experiences might indicate that someone has face blindness. If you suspect you have face blindness, you may find you identify with some or many of the experiences below. 7 signs and symptoms of face blindness / prosopagnosia The list was compiled with the help of the Yahoo Faceblind group. You have failed to recognize a close friend or family member, especially when you weren’t expecting to see them.Failing to recognize someone in your immediately family, in particular, is something that people with normal face recognition rarely (if ever) experience. I hope this list is helpful to some of you, or at least thought-provoking.

Qi Etymology[edit] The etymological explanation for the form of the qi logogram (or chi) in the traditional form 氣 is "steam (气) rising from rice (米) as it cooks". The earliest way of writing qi consisted of three wavy lines, used to represent one's breath seen on a cold day. A later version, 气, identical to the present-day simplified character, is a stylized version of those same three lines. Definition[edit] References to concepts analogous to the qi taken to be the life-process or flow of energy that sustains living beings are found in many belief systems, especially in Asia. Within the framework of Chinese thought, no notion may attain such a degree of abstraction from empirical data as to correspond perfectly to one of our modern universal concepts. The ancient Chinese described it as "life force". Although the concept of qi has been important within many Chinese philosophies, over the centuries the descriptions of qi have varied and have sometimes been in conflict. Pronunciation[edit]

Visual agnosia Visual agnosia is an impairment in recognition of visually presented objects. It is not due to a deficit in vision (acuity, visual field, and scanning), language, memory, or low intellect.[1] There are two types of visual agnosia: apperceptive agnosia and associative agnosia. Recognition of visual objects occurs at two primary levels. At an apperceptive level, the features of the visual information from the retina are put together to form a perceptual representation of an object. Visual agnosia is often due to bilateral damage in the posterior occipital and/or temporal lobe(s) in the brain.[3] Classification[edit] The two major types of visual agnosia are apperceptive and associative visual agnosia. Apperceptive agnosia is failure of object recognition even when the basic visual functions (acuity, color, motion) are normal.[4] The brain must correctly integrate such features as lines, brightness, and color of visual information to form a whole percept of an object. Symptoms[edit]