In a perfect world, everyone would have food and shelter, and a true utopian society would be devoid of sexism, racism and other forms of oppression. But for most of the world's population, this perfect society just isn't possible. Communism is one proposed solution to these problems. Most people know what communism is at its most basic level. Simply put, communism is the idea that everyone in a given society receives equal shares of the benefits derived from labor. According to the philosopher Frederick Engels' "Principles of Communism," the plan for ultimate financial and social equality is built on the principle that the system should spread around the world until all countries are on board [source: Engels]. Who are communists, and why do non-communist cultures consider them radical?
Related: organisations et leadership
Khan Academy24 charts of leadership styles around the worldDifferent cultures can have radically different leadership styles, and international organizations would do well to understand them. British linguist Richard D. Lewis charted these differences in his book "When Cultures Collide," first published in 1996 and now in its third edition, and he teaches these insights in seminars with major corporate clients. From structured individualism in the U.S. to ringi-sho consensus in Japan, the charts seem intuitively correct, if not unilaterally true across a country. Lewis acknowledges the risks of dealing in stereotypes: "Determining national characteristics is treading a minefield of inaccurate assessment and surprising exception. There is, however, such a thing as a national norm." With permission from the author, we are posting 24 charts of leadership styles from his book, with a brief summary of his comments about each below: crossculture.com Swedish management is decentralized and democratic. German managers strive to create a perfect system.
Polygonal SpiralThe length of the polygonal spiral is found by noting that the ratio of inradius to circumradius of a regular polygon of sides is The total length of the spiral for an -gon with side length is therefore Consider the solid region obtained by filling in subsequent triangles which the spiral encloses. -gons of side length , is The shaded triangular polygonal spiral is a rep-4-tile.The Dystopian Society
How The Most Powerful People Get Things Done: 4 Tips From A White House StafferWe all have big decisions to make and deadlines to meet. And sometimes it can feel overwhelming. This got me wondering: how do the most powerful people get things done? When lives are on the line, literally trillions of dollars are at stake and the world is watching… how do people handle those situations? So I called my friend James Waters. James was Deputy Director of Scheduling at the White House and served in government for 10 years. James had some tremendous insights about how they do things at The White House that line up with a lot of what the formal research is telling us. Now if you’re looking for Republicans-this, Democrats-that, you’ve come to the wrong place. Let’s get to it. Be Responsive It ain’t like an episode of “The West Wing.” Watching that show you might think that 5 people get everything done. How do you make insanely big decisions with such a huge number of people involved? We all know people who have 1000 unread emails in their inbox or don’t pick up their phone. Sum Up
Jus post bellumJus post bellum (Latin for "Justice after war") deals with the termination phase of war. The idea was written about by Brian Orend to reflect the need for rules to end wars completely and fairly. The jus post bellum has also become a subject of interest for international lawyers concerned with transitions from conflict to peace. Purpose Provide assurances to combatants about the terms necessary to end a conflictProvide terms for the end of war; once the rights of a political community have been vindicated, further continuation of war becomes an act of aggressionProvide guidelines for the construction of peace treatiesPrevent continuous fighting throughout peace negotiations by belligerents trying to gain more favorable terms.Prevent draconian and vengeful peace terms; the rights a just state fights for in a war provide the constraints on what can be demanded from the defeated belligerent Just Settlement of a Just War See also Just War Theory References
Malthusian Theory of PopulationThomas Robert Malthus was the first economist to propose a systematic theory of population. He articulated his views regarding population in his famous book, Essay on the Principle of Population (1798), for which he collected empirical data to support his thesis. Malthus had the second edition of his book published in 1803, in which he modified some of his views from the first edition, but essentially his original thesis did not change. In Essay on the Principle of Population,Malthus proposes the principle that human populations grow exponentially (i.e., doubling with each cycle) while food production grows at an arithmetic rate (i.e. by the repeated addition of a uniform increment in each uniform interval of time). Thus, while food output was likely to increase in a series of twenty-five year intervals in the arithmetic progression 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and so on, population was capable of increasing in the geometric progression 1, 2, 4, 8, 16, 32, 64, 128, 256, and so forth.
La démarche de situation-problèmeExemple de déclinaison d'une situation-problème avec degrés de difficultés En partant de la vie quotidienne Toute situation de vie est susceptible de nous donner des idées de situation-problème, puisqu'elle mobilise nécessairement des savoirs, des savoirs-faire et des savoirs-être. Une publicité, une émission TV, la préparation d'un repas, une ballade en forêt, le choix d'un logement, une carte postale à écrire, un concert, une chanson,... A titre d'exemple, nous avons sélectionné une série de tâches-types, déclinées plus particulièrement pour des professeurs de géographie ou de sciences humaines. En partant des objectifs-obstacles 1. 2. Réfléchir en termes d'obstacles, c'est inventer une situation qui crée le besoin d'apprendre. Il nous suffit donc d'orienter autrement notre manière habituelle de réfléchir en termes d'objectifs et de capacités. Déterminer les contraintes et les ressources Matériel, documents, minutage, contraintes de tout type... Des idées de situations-problèmes sur le web
Online Reputation InfographicYou don't have to be running for president to care about your online reputation. Almost everything you do online is easy to track, especially when you're using social media sites. This infographic shows you how to manage your "e-reputation," perhaps saving you some embarrassment, or even your career. Gathered by digital marketing firm KBSD, it's a treasure trove of tips, techniques and information about what companies and individuals are looking for inside your personal profiles and social information, and what you can do to show off your best side to those who might want to find out unflattering things about you. It's not too late to protect yourself and polish up your online image. So now that you've grown up (you have grown up, haven't you?) Infographic courtesy KBSD, photo courtesy iStockphoto/Yuri Arcurs