How to survive in psychological research A Handbook of Skills and Methods in Behavioural Research is not the place you’d expect to find something to make you smile, but many years ago one of my graduate students pointed me to a wickedly funny piece by Ray Hodgson and Stephen Rollnick. Since then I’ve found myself loaning an increasingly dog-eared photocopy of the article to new generations of students and postdocs. Sadly, the article is not available electronically, though copies of the book can be tracked down. So here’s a summary of Hodgson and Rollnick’s laws, all of which are as pertinent to the older, seasoned researcher as to the intended readership of the ‘young, lively, questioning researcher who has great expectations but a lack of practical experience’: Law #1. The barriers are various: perhaps the most salient for the newcomer is dithering induced by fear of commiting to a non-optimal design. Hodgson and Rollnick also mention the need to get ethics approval, another topic that has featured on my blog. Law #2.
Walking Through Doorways Causes Forgetting We’ve all experienced it: The frustration of entering a room and forgetting what we were going to do. Or get. Or find. New research from University of Notre Dame Psychology Professor Gabriel Radvansky suggests that passing through doorways is the cause of these memory lapses. “Entering or exiting through a doorway serves as an ‘event boundary’ in the mind, which separates episodes of activity and files them away,” Radvansky explains. “Recalling the decision or activity that was made in a different room is difficult because it has been compartmentalized.” The study was published recently in the Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology. Conducting three experiments in both real and virtual environments, Radvansky’s subjects—all college students—performed memory tasks while crossing a room and while exiting a doorway. Learn More >
The Artificial Prison of the Human Mind Photo courtesy Philip G. Zimbardo In 1963 1971, a study about prisons was funded by the U.S. Navy to try to better understand problems in the Marine Corps.' prisons. The study was run by a group of researchers at Stanford, led by psychologist Philip G. No one thought the experiment would have any big problems - the participants were just playing a short game of prison. Zimbardo did attempt to make the prison more real with some degrading tactics to simulate a real prison. The guards were made to be quite intimidating - they went to a military surplus to get their khaki outfits and wooden batons. On the chosen start date, the prisoners were arrested for armed robbery and taken from their homes by the actual Palo Alto police, who cooperated with the project. The first day of the experiment was relatively peaceful. This was only the beginning of the problems, though. This environment got to be too much for some of the participants.
The Ten Most Revealing Psych Experiments Psychology is the study of the human mind and mental processes in relation to human behaviors - human nature. Due to its subject matter, psychology is not considered a 'hard' science, even though psychologists do experiment and publish their findings in respected journals. Some of the experiments psychologists have conducted over the years reveal things about the way we humans think and behave that we might not want to embrace, but which can at least help keep us humble. That's something. 1. 'Lord of the Flies': Social Identity Theory The Robbers Cave Experiment is a classic social psychology experiment conducted with two groups of 11-year old boys at a state park in Oklahoma, and demonstrates just how easily an exclusive group identity is adopted and how quickly the group can degenerate into prejudice and antagonism toward outsiders. Researcher Muzafer Sherif actually conducted a series of 3 experiments. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Turns out that it's all about framing.
La non-assistance à personne en danger - Les Amphis de France 5 La non-assistance à personne en danger Ce sujet sera abordé de deux façons complémentaires : - un film bref relatant une expérimentation concernant la non-assistance à personne en danger.- un exposé qui analyse cette expérimentation, présente d'autres expérimentations sur le même thème et apporte des notions théoriques sur la non-assistance à personne en danger.La non-assistance à personne en danger est un comportement très souvent constaté. La ressource est diffusée sous licence Creative Commons
Francis Galton: The man who drew up the 'ugly map' of Britain 16 June 2011Last updated at 10:52 One hundred years after the death of Francis Galton, the "father of eugenics", geneticists are increasingly baffled by the nature versus nurture debate, writes Professor Steve Jones. Type the phrase "scientists find the gene for" into Google and 68,000 results appear. Most of the hits are about human beings - which is a pretty impressive number, given that we have only 20,000 genes altogether. The hits include genes for depression, religiosity, insomnia, marital failure and, perhaps surprisingly, premature ejaculation. Does what we are born with make us what we will become, or is it the way we live? As they learn more, geneticists are finding that they have less and less of an idea about which is more important, or whether the question means anything in the first place. Charles Darwin had an equally brilliant, but less well-known, cousin. Galton applied statistics to many things, including the efficacy of prayer Beauty map 'A gamble' Take height.
Shock study, replicates Milgram's findings Nearly 50 years after the controversial Milgram experiments, social psychologist Jerry M. Burger, PhD, has found that people are still just as willing to administer what they believe are painful electric shocks to others when urged on by an authority figure. Burger, a professor at Santa Clara University, replicated one of the famous obedience experiments of the late Stanley Milgram, PhD, and found that compliance rates in the replication were only slightly lower than those found by Milgram. And, like Milgram, he found no difference in the rates of obedience between men and women. "People learning about Milgram's work often wonder whether results would be any different today," Burger says. "Many point to the lessons of the Holocaust and argue that there is greater societal awareness of the dangers of blind obedience. —K.I.
Why powerful people -- many of whom take a moral high ground -- don't practice what they preach 2009 may well be remembered for its scandal-ridden headlines, from admissions of extramarital affairs by governors and senators, to corporate executives flying private jets while cutting employee benefits, and most recently, to a mysterious early morning car crash in Florida. The past year has been marked by a series of moral transgressions by powerful figures in political, business and celebrity circles. New research from the Kellogg School of Management at Northwestern University explores why powerful people - many of whom take a moral high ground - don't practice what they preach. Researchers sought to determine whether power inspires hypocrisy, the tendency to hold high standards for others while performing morally suspect behaviors oneself. The research finds that power makes people stricter in moral judgment of others - while being less strict of their own behavior. The research was conducted by Joris Lammers and Diederik A.
Les effets de la catégorisation - Les Amphis de France 5 Les effets de la catégorisation Ce sujet sera abordé de deux façons complémentaires : - un film bref relatant une expérimentation concernant la catégorisation.- un exposé qui analyse cette expérimentation, présente d'autres expérimentations sur le même thème et apporte des notions théoriques sur les effets de la catégorisation. Nombreuses sont les recherches qui montrent qu'on attribue facilement aux éléments d'une catégorie des attributs considérés comme caractéristiques de cette catégorie.Cette tendance a des conséquences importantes sur nos jugements et nos comportements quotidiens. Elle peut s’avérer à l’origine de phénomènes de discrimination et de racisme. La ressource est diffusée sous licence Creative Commons
Disgraced cognition researcher resigns from Harvard Peter Aldhous, San Francisco bureau chief Marc Hauser, the famed animal cognition researcher found guilty by Harvard of scientific misconduct, has resigned his position at the university. In April, news emerged that Harvard's faculty had voted to ban Hauser from teaching undergraduates in the coming academic year - but he was expected to return to his research lab later this year after an extended leave of absence. However, The Boston Globe today reported that Hauser has resigned his position, effective 1 August. His letter of resignation, emailed to New Scientist by Harvard's news office, reads: "While on leave over the past year, I have begun doing some extremely interesting and rewarding work focusing on the educational needs of at-risk teenagers. Hauser could not be reached for comment on the resignation and his future plans. The studies involved primate's cognitive abilities.
How Netflix Reverse Engineered Hollywood - Alexis C. Madrigal If you use Netflix, you've probably wondered about the specific genres that it suggests to you. Some of them just seem so specific that it's absurd. Emotional Fight-the-System Documentaries? Period Pieces About Royalty Based on Real Life? Foreign Satanic Stories from the 1980s? If Netflix can show such tiny slices of cinema to any given user, and they have 40 million users, how vast did their set of "personalized genres" need to be to describe the entire Hollywood universe? This idle wonder turned to rabid fascination when I realized that I could capture each and every microgenre that Netflix's algorithm has ever created. Through a combination of elbow grease and spam-level repetition, we discovered that Netflix possesses not several hundred genres, or even several thousand, but 76,897 unique ways to describe types of movies. There are so many that just loading, copying, and pasting all of them took the little script I wrote more than 20 hours. Imaginary movies for an imaginary genre.
10 Brilliant Social Psychology Studies | PsyBlog Ten of the most influential social psychology experiments. “I have been primarily interested in how and why ordinary people do unusual things, things that seem alien to their natures.Why do good people sometimes act evil?Why do smart people sometimes do dumb or irrational things?” –Philip Zimbardo Like eminent social psychologist Professor Philip Zimbardo (author of The Lucifer Effect: Understanding How Good People Turn Evil), I’m also obsessed with why we do dumb or irrational things. The answer quite often is because of other people – something social psychologists have comprehensively shown. Over the past few months I’ve been describing 10 of the most influential social psychology experiments. Each one tells a unique, insightful story relevant to all our lives, every day. 1. The ‘halo effect’ is a classic social psychology experiment. » Read on about the halo effect -» 2. » Read on about cognitive dissonance -» 3. » Read on about Sherif’s Robbers Cave experiment -» 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Le Hibou à l'envers How 9/11 unearthed psychologists’ limits Not all who witnessed the Sept. 11 attacks firsthand and got mental health care benefited. The mental fallout from the 9/11 attacks has taught psychologists far more about their field’s limitations than about their potential to shape and predict behavior. Experts greatly overestimated the number of people in New York who would suffer emotional distress. A collection of articles due to be published next month in a special issue of the journal American Psychologist relate a succession of humbling missteps after the attacks that have changed the way mental health workers respond to traumatic events, said Roxane Cohen Silver, a psychologist at the University of California, Irvine, who oversaw the special issue along with editors at the journal. Chaos reigned in the New York area after the World Trade Center towers fell, both on the streets and in the minds of many mental health professionals who felt compelled to help but were unsure how.