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Artificial life

Artificial life
Artificial life (often abbreviated ALife or A-Life[1]) is a field of study and an associated art form which examine systems related to life, its processes, and its evolution, through the use of simulations with computer models, robotics, and biochemistry.[2] The discipline was named by Christopher Langton, an American computer scientist, in 1986.[3] There are three main kinds of alife,[4] named for their approaches: soft,[5] from software; hard,[6] from hardware; and wet, from biochemistry. Artificial life imitates traditional biology by trying to recreate some aspects of biological phenomena.[7] The term "artificial intelligence" is often used to specifically refer to soft alife.[8] Overview[edit] Artificial life studies the logic of living systems in artificial environments in order to gain a deeper understanding of the complex information processing that defines such systems. Philosophy[edit] Organizations[edit] Software-based - "soft"[edit] Techniques[edit] Notable simulators[edit]

Related:  Artificial Life (A-Life)

Cellular automaton The concept was originally discovered in the 1940s by Stanislaw Ulam and John von Neumann while they were contemporaries at Los Alamos National Laboratory. While studied by some throughout the 1950s and 1960s, it was not until the 1970s and Conway's Game of Life, a two-dimensional cellular automaton, that interest in the subject expanded beyond academia. In the 1980s, Stephen Wolfram engaged in a systematic study of one-dimensional cellular automata, or what he calls elementary cellular automata; his research assistant Matthew Cook showed that one of these rules is Turing-complete. Film Genre In film theory, genre (/ˈʒɒnrə/ or /ˈdʒɒnrə/) refers to the method based on similarities in the narrative elements from which films are constructed. Most theories of film genre are borrowed from literary genre criticism. Besides the basic distinction in genre between fiction and documentary (from which hybrid forms emerged founding a new genre, docufiction), film genres can be categorized in several ways. The setting is the milieu or environment where the story and action takes place.

All the King's Horses (story) "All the King's Horses" is a short story written in or before 1951 by Kurt Vonnegut.[1] It can be found in his collection of short stories Welcome to the Monkey House. It derives its title from a line in the Humpty Dumpty nursery rhyme. Pi Ying takes a sadistic pleasure in pointless exchanges of pieces meant to wear down Kelly, who begins to doubt himself over every move he makes. Eventually, he realizes that his only chance to win involves sacrificing one of his knights, played by his sons. Imitation of Life Can a computer program reproduce everything that happens inside a living cell? Brian Hayes Almost 30 years ago, Harold J. Morowitz, who was then at Yale, set forth a bold plan for molecular biology. He outlined a campaign to study one of the smallest single-celled organisms, a bacterium of the genus Mycoplasma. The first step would be to decipher its complete genetic sequence, which in turn would reveal the amino acid sequences of all the proteins in the cell.

Neural network An artificial neural network is an interconnected group of nodes, akin to the vast network of neurons in a brain. Here, each circular node represents an artificial neuron and an arrow represents a connection from the output of one neuron to the input of another. For example, a neural network for handwriting recognition is defined by a set of input neurons which may be activated by the pixels of an input image. After being weighted and transformed by a function (determined by the network's designer), the activations of these neurons are then passed on to other neurons. This process is repeated until finally, an output neuron is activated. This determines which character was read.

Fuzzy operator This article is definitively not a tutorial on fuzzy logic. It's simply refers a category of usefull images to help writing wiki articles on fuzzy logic operators. Only, very short comments are thus provided here. Musicals The musical film was a natural development of the stage musical after the emergence of sound film technology. Typically, the biggest difference between film and stage musicals is the use of lavish background scenery and locations that would be impractical in a theater. Musical films characteristically contain elements reminiscent of theater; performers often treat their song and dance numbers as if there is a live audience watching. In a sense, the viewer becomes the diegetic audience, as the performer looks directly into the camera and performs to it.

Story within a story Types of nested story[edit] Story within a story[edit] The inner stories are told either simply to entertain or more usually to act as an example to the other characters. In either case the story often has symbolic and psychological significance for the characters in the outer story. Digital organism History[edit] Steen Rasmussen at Los Alamos National Laboratory took the idea from Core War one step further in his core world system by introducing a genetic algorithm that automatically wrote programs. However, Rasmussen did not observe the evolution of complex and stable programs. It turned out that the programming language in which core world programs were written was very brittle, and more often than not mutations would completely destroy the functionality of a program. In 1996, Andy Pargellis created a Tierra-like system called Amoeba that evolved self-replication from a randomly seeded initial condition.