Ancient Egyptian religion Egyptian mythology is the collection of myths from ancient Egypt, which describe the actions of the Egyptian gods as a means of understanding the world. The beliefs that these myths express are an important part of ancient Egyptian religion. Myths appear frequently in Egyptian writings and art, particularly in short stories and in religious material such as hymns, ritual texts, funerary texts, and temple decoration. These sources rarely contain a complete account of a myth and often describe only brief fragments. The details of these sacred events differ greatly from one text to another and often seem contradictory. Mythology profoundly influenced Egyptian culture. Origins The development of Egyptian myth is difficult to trace. Another possible source for mythology is ritual. In private rituals, which are often called "magical", the myth and the ritual are particularly closely tied. Definition and scope Content and meaning Sources Religious sources
Isis (God of nature and magic,Ideal mother and wife as well as the patroness of ) Temple of Isis in Philae, Egypt Isis (Ancient Greek: Ἶσις, original Egyptian pronunciation more likely "Aset" or "Iset") is a goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs, whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. She was worshipped as the ideal mother and wife as well as the patroness of nature and magic. She was the friend of slaves, sinners, artisans and the downtrodden, but she also listened to the prayers of the wealthy, maidens, aristocrats and rulers. Isis is often depicted as the mother of Horus, the hawk-headed god of war and protection (although in some traditions Horus's mother was Hathor). Isis is also known as protector of the dead and goddess of children. This myth became very important during the Greco-Roman period. Etymology The name Isis is the Greek version of her name, with a final -s added to the original Egyptian form because of the grammatical requirements of the Greek language (-s often being a marker of the nominative case in ancient Greek).
Mésopotamie Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Carte de la Mésopotamie avec les frontières des États modernes, l'ancien tracé du littoral du golfe Persique et les sites des grandes cités antiques. Elle comprend deux régions topographiques distinctes et remarquables: d'une part au nord (nord-est de la Syrie et le nord de l'Irak actuel) une région de plateaux, celle-ci étant une zone de cultures pluviales; et d'autre par au sud, une région de plaines où l'on pratique une agriculture reposant exclusivement sur l'irrigation. L'ensemble des historiens et des archéologues contemporains s'accorderaient à dire que les Mésopotamiens sont à l'origine de l'écriture. Actuellement, le terme « Mésopotamie » est généralement utilisé en référence à l'histoire antique de cette région, pour la civilisation ayant occupé cet espace jusqu'aux derniers siècles avant l'ère chrétienne ou au VIIe siècle, plus exactement en 637 ap. Géographie[modifier | modifier le code] Chronologie[modifier | modifier le code]
Pygmalion et Galatée Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Mythe[modifier | modifier le code] Ayant nié la divinité d'Aphrodite, les Propétides sont punies par la déesse qui allume dans leur cœur le feu de l'impudicité. Ayant fini par perdre toute honte, elles sont insensiblement changées en ivoire. Les noms de Πυγμαλίων καὶ Γαλατεία Pugmalíôn kaì Galateía évoquent respectivement le poing/coude/bras Πύγμα du sculpteur travaillant au maillet et ciseau, et le lait Γάλα, couleur de la statue mais aussi des Propétides transformées en ivoire. Origines et interprétations[modifier | modifier le code] La critique tombe généralement d’accord pour voir dans Philostéphanos de Cyrène (vers 222-206 av. Ce mythe, relié à celui des Propétides, condamne en fait l’indépendance de mœurs des femmes, déjà à l’époque associée à la prostitution ou la sorcellerie, par contraste avec la fidélité de la statue, création de l’homme qui l’a modelée, seule digne d’amour et récompensée en prenant vie. Littérature Peinture Sculpture
Egyptian pyramids found by infra-red satellite images Seventeen lost pyramids are among the buildings identified in a new satellite survey of Egypt. More than 1,000 tombs and 3,000 ancient settlements were also revealed by looking at infra-red images which show up underground buildings. Initial excavations have already confirmed some of the findings, including two suspected pyramids. The work has been pioneered at the University of Alabama at Birmingham by US Egyptologist Dr Sarah Parcak. She says she was amazed at how much she and her team has found. "We were very intensely doing this research for over a year. "To excavate a pyramid is the dream of every archaeologist," she said. The team analysed images from satellites orbiting 700km above the earth, equipped with cameras so powerful they can pin-point objects less than 1m in diameter on the earth's surface. Infra-red imaging was used to highlight different materials under the surface. And she believes there are more antiquities to be discovered:
Horus and Jesus | Egyptian Deities and Myths Compared to the Bible There are few books that have caused as much controversy as the Holy Bible. For centuries now, it has been regarded by many to be the "one true word of God". The writers of the Bible may have been human beings... but it is said that those writers had "divine inspiration" for their words. However, religions and worship of deities existed before the writings of the Bible. Horus One important note about the gods and goddesses of ancient Egypt... they were not one-dimensional beings. Hathor There are differing accounts of this... some of which have Isis as the wife of Horus, rather than his mother, which is a bit confusing. Horus is also the only son of the Osiris, the god of fertility and vegetation. Nepthys The Egyptian Creation Story In the Egyptian creation story, the four children of Geb (god of the sky) and Nut (goddess of the earth) sired four children. Whether or not she found them all is unknown... however, according to legend, she was able to conceive a child, Horus, with him.
Golem Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Golem Représentation d'un Golem, par Philippe Semeria, portant sur son front les consonnes du mot « golem ». Créature Origines Le Golem (hébreu : גולם « embryon », « informe » ou « inachevé ») est, dans la mystique puis la mythologie juives, un être artificiel, généralement humanoïde, fait d’argile, incapable de parole et dépourvu de libre-arbitre façonné afin d’assister ou défendre son créateur. Déjà mentionné dans la littérature talmudique, il acquiert une popularité considérable dans le folklore juif d’Europe Centrale, où il est associé à la figure du Maharal de Prague et aux accusations de meurtre rituel envers les Juifs. Les légendes du Golem auraient inspiré nombre de figures de l’imaginaire moderne dont le monstre de Frankenstein (dans sa version filmée), Superman ou encore le Terminator. Le Golem dans les sources juives[modifier | modifier le code] La légende de Rabbi Loew[modifier | modifier le code]
Ancient Egypt | Ancient Egyptian Resource Center | Includes Pyramids, Pharaohs, Queens, and More! Nephthys Etymology Nephthys - Musée du Louvre, Paris, France Nephthys is the Greek form of an epithet (transliterated as Nebet-het, and Nebt-het, from Egyptian hieroglyphs).The origin of the goddess Nephthys is unclear but the literal translation of her name is usually given as "Lady of the House," which has caused some to mistakenly identify her with the notion of a "housewife," or as the primary lady who ruled a domestic household. This is a pervasive error repeated in many commentaries concerning this deity. Her name means quite specifically, "Lady of the [Temple] Enclosure" which associates her with the role of priestess. Function Nephthys was known in some ancient Egyptian temple theologies and cosmologies as the "Useful Goddess" or the "Excellent Goddess". These late Ancient Egyptian temple texts describe a goddess who represented divine assistance and protective guardianship. Triad of Isis, Nephthys, and Harpocrates. Pyramid Text Utterance 222 line 210. Symbolism
Greek mythology Greek mythology is explicitly embodied in a large collection of narratives, and implicitly in Greek representational arts, such as vase-paintings and votive gifts. Greek myth attempts to explain the origins of the world, and details the lives and adventures of a wide variety of gods, goddesses, heroes, heroines, and mythological creatures. These accounts initially were disseminated in an oral-poetic tradition; today the Greek myths are known primarily from Greek literature. Archaeological findings provide a principal source of detail about Greek mythology, with gods and heroes featured prominently in the decoration of many artifacts. Sources Literary sources The poetry of the Hellenistic and Roman ages was primarily composed as a literary rather than cultic exercise. Finally, a number of Byzantine Greek writers provide important details of myth, much derived from earlier now lost Greek works. Archaeological sources Survey of mythic history Origins of the world and the gods