Epic of Gilgamesh The Epic of Gilgamesh, an epic poem from Mesopotamia, is considered the world's first truly great work of literature. The literary history of Gilgamesh begins with five Sumerian poems about 'Bilgamesh' (Sumerian for 'Gilgamesh'), king of Uruk. These independent stories were used as source material for a combined epic. The first half of the story discusses Gilgamesh, king of Uruk, and Enkidu, a wild man created by the gods to stop him oppressing the people of Uruk. In the second half of the epic, Gilgamesh's distress at Enkidu's death causes him to undertake a long and perilous journey to discover the secret of eternal life. History Versions of the epic From the diverse sources found two main versions of the epic have been partially reconstructed: the Standard Akkadian version, or He who saw the deep, and the Old Babylonian version, or Surpassing all other kings. Standard Akkadian version Content of the standard version tablets (Based on Andrew George's translation)
OUR SPIRITUAL SUN SIRIUS A Leonid Meteor shower around the constellation Canis Major, the big dog, shows the trail of a spectacular fireball meteor appearing to leap from the constellation's brightest star Sirius, near the top right. Photo by Wally Pacholka Brilliantly blazing, the star Sirius, brightest beacon in our night sky, beckons with glimpses of grandeur unimaginable. As we learn more about the nature of our galaxy and especially its magnetic field, we know that streams of energy from stars travel in specific directions, either up or down the galactic arm in which they are embedded. Recent findings reveal we are "downstream" from Sirius in the part of the galactic arm our solar system resides in. Now our sun obviously deserves the title of "light bearer" and "life bringer," as no life could exist in the solar system without its sustaining rays. What does this mean to life on Earth? The concept of Sirius playing a God-like role to our world is not a new one. Earth Changes Liberation
Mesopotamian religion The god Marduk and his dragon Mušḫuššu Mesopotamian religion refers to the religious beliefs and practices followed by the Sumerian and East Semitic Akkadian, Assyrian, Babylonian and later migrant Arameans and Chaldeans, living in Mesopotamia (a region encompassing modern Iraq, Kuwait, southeast Turkey and northeast Syria) that dominated the region for a period of 4200 years from the fourth millennium BCE throughout Mesopotamia to approximately the 10th century CE in Assyria. Mesopotamian polytheism was the only religion in ancient Mesopotamia for thousands of years before entering a period of gradual decline beginning between the 1st and 3rd centuries CE. Reconstruction As with most dead religions, many aspects of the common practices and intricacies of the doctrine have been lost and forgotten over time. History Overview map of ancient Mesopotamia. Akkadian names first appear in king lists of these states circa 2800 BCE. Religion in the Neo-Assyrian Empire "Enlil!
Ancient Egyptian religion Egyptian mythology is the collection of myths from ancient Egypt, which describe the actions of the Egyptian gods as a means of understanding the world. The beliefs that these myths express are an important part of ancient Egyptian religion. Myths appear frequently in Egyptian writings and art, particularly in short stories and in religious material such as hymns, ritual texts, funerary texts, and temple decoration. These sources rarely contain a complete account of a myth and often describe only brief fragments. The details of these sacred events differ greatly from one text to another and often seem contradictory. Mythology profoundly influenced Egyptian culture. Origins The development of Egyptian myth is difficult to trace. Another possible source for mythology is ritual. In private rituals, which are often called "magical", the myth and the ritual are particularly closely tied. Definition and scope Content and meaning Sources Religious sources
Isis (God of nature and magic,Ideal mother and wife as well as the patroness of ) Temple of Isis in Philae, Egypt Isis (Ancient Greek: Ἶσις, original Egyptian pronunciation more likely "Aset" or "Iset") is a goddess in Ancient Egyptian religious beliefs, whose worship spread throughout the Greco-Roman world. She was worshipped as the ideal mother and wife as well as the patroness of nature and magic. She was the friend of slaves, sinners, artisans and the downtrodden, but she also listened to the prayers of the wealthy, maidens, aristocrats and rulers. Isis is often depicted as the mother of Horus, the hawk-headed god of war and protection (although in some traditions Horus's mother was Hathor). Isis is also known as protector of the dead and goddess of children. This myth became very important during the Greco-Roman period. Etymology The name Isis is the Greek version of her name, with a final -s added to the original Egyptian form because of the grammatical requirements of the Greek language (-s often being a marker of the nominative case in ancient Greek).
Gilgamesh Gilgamesh (/ˈɡɪl.ɡə.mɛʃ/; Akkadian cuneiform: 𒄑𒂆𒈦 [𒄑𒂆𒈦], Gilgameš, often given the epithet of the King, also known as Bilgamesh in the Sumerian texts) was the fifth king of Uruk, modern day Iraq (Early Dynastic II, first dynasty of Uruk), placing his reign ca. 2500 BC. According to the Sumerian King List he reigned for 126 years. In the Tummal Inscription, Gilgamesh, and his son Urlugal, rebuilt the sanctuary of the goddess Ninlil, in Tummal, a sacred quarter in her city of Nippur. Gilgamesh is the central character in the Epic of Gilgamesh, the greatest surviving work of early Mesopotamian literature. In the epic his father was Lugalbanda and his mother was Ninsun (whom some call Rimat Ninsun), a goddess. Cuneiform references In the Epic of Gilgamesh, Gilgamesh is credited with the building of the legendary walls of Uruk. Fragments of an epic text found in Me-Turan (modern Tell Haddad) relate that at the end of his life Gilgamesh was buried under the river bed.
HIGHLIGHTS ~ SIRIUS Sirius ~ The Heavenly Host Sirius, the "Sparkling One" or the "Scorching One," also called the "Dog Star" and the "Nile Star," is the brightest of the fixed stars, the leader of the hosts of the heaven. Located in the constellation Canis Major, Sirius is nine times more brilliant than a standard first magnitude star. The most accurate modern observations measure its magnitude as –1.42. The star is a brilliant white with a definite tinge of blue in color, yet in its rapid scintillation it often seems to flicker with all the colors of the rainbow. Only 8.7 light years from the Earth, Sirius is the fifth nearest star to us. The name of the star Sirius comes from the Greek meaning "searing" or "scorching," highly appropriate for something so brilliant. "Hardly is it inferior to the Sun, save that its abode is far away," wrote Manilas, anticipating the modern view that stars are bodies like the Sun only vastly more distant. During the years between 1834 and 1844, astronomer F.
Mythology Some (recent) approaches have rejected a conflict between the value of myth and rational thought, often viewing myths, rather than being merely inaccurate historical accounts, as expressions for understanding general psychological, cultural or societal truths. Etymology The English term mythology predates the word myth by centuries. It appeared in the 15th century, borrowed whole from Middle French mythologie. Terminology Origins Euhemerism Allegory Some theories propose that myths began as allegories. Personification Some thinkers believe that myths resulted from the personification of inanimate objects and forces. Myth-ritual theory Functions of myth Mircea Eliade argued that one of the foremost functions of myth is to establish models for behavior and that myths may also provide a religious experience. Joseph Campbell writes: "In the long view of the history of mankind, four essential functions of mythology can be discerned. Lists
Pygmalion et Galatée Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Mythe[modifier | modifier le code] Ayant nié la divinité d'Aphrodite, les Propétides sont punies par la déesse qui allume dans leur cœur le feu de l'impudicité. Ayant fini par perdre toute honte, elles sont insensiblement changées en ivoire. Les noms de Πυγμαλίων καὶ Γαλατεία Pugmalíôn kaì Galateía évoquent respectivement le poing/coude/bras Πύγμα du sculpteur travaillant au maillet et ciseau, et le lait Γάλα, couleur de la statue mais aussi des Propétides transformées en ivoire. Origines et interprétations[modifier | modifier le code] La critique tombe généralement d’accord pour voir dans Philostéphanos de Cyrène (vers 222-206 av. Ce mythe, relié à celui des Propétides, condamne en fait l’indépendance de mœurs des femmes, déjà à l’époque associée à la prostitution ou la sorcellerie, par contraste avec la fidélité de la statue, création de l’homme qui l’a modelée, seule digne d’amour et récompensée en prenant vie. Littérature Peinture Sculpture
Egyptian pyramids found by infra-red satellite images Seventeen lost pyramids are among the buildings identified in a new satellite survey of Egypt. More than 1,000 tombs and 3,000 ancient settlements were also revealed by looking at infra-red images which show up underground buildings. Initial excavations have already confirmed some of the findings, including two suspected pyramids. The work has been pioneered at the University of Alabama at Birmingham by US Egyptologist Dr Sarah Parcak. She says she was amazed at how much she and her team has found. "We were very intensely doing this research for over a year. "To excavate a pyramid is the dream of every archaeologist," she said. The team analysed images from satellites orbiting 700km above the earth, equipped with cameras so powerful they can pin-point objects less than 1m in diameter on the earth's surface. Infra-red imaging was used to highlight different materials under the surface. And she believes there are more antiquities to be discovered: