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Designing Science Inquiry: Claim + Evidence + Reasoning = Explanation

Designing Science Inquiry: Claim + Evidence + Reasoning = Explanation
In an interview with students, MIT's Kerry Emmanuel stated, "At the end of the day, it's just raw curiosity. I think almost everybody that gets seriously into science is driven by curiosity." Curiosity -- the desire to explain how the world works -- drives the questions we ask and the investigations we conduct. Let's say that we are planning a unit on matter. By having students observe solids and liquids, we have helped them define matter as something that has mass (or weight -- don’t worry about the difference with elementary kids!) and takes up space. Is air matter? Next, we can ask our students what data they need to answer the question, and how they can collect that data -- how they can investigate. According to the CER model, an explanation consists of: A claim that answers the question Evidence from students' data Reasoning that involves a "rule" or scientific principle that describes why the evidence supports the claim Your students might suggest the following explanation:

http://www.edutopia.org/blog/science-inquiry-claim-evidence-reasoning-eric-brunsell

Teaching Students CER (Claim, Evidence, Reasoning) Two of the most fascinating and useful sessions that I attended had to do with the CER framwork, which stands for Claims, Evidence and Reasoning. I hadn't heard of this framework but now I can't wait to start incorporating it into my science units, as well as sharing it with the upper elementary science teachers. CER works very well if you are already using science notebooks.

Scientific Writing Scaffolds As a department we've been working on different writing scaffolds. We use Constructing Meaning as a school which I think is mostly good. We've tried all kinds of different writing frames with varying degrees of success. Most of these come from Constructing Meaning. Does Knuckle Cracking Lead to Arthritis? 3 CER Examples based on FUN Science! CER is an awesome format to teach science students, but CER examples are lacking. CER stands for Claim, Evidence, and Reasoning. It is a great format for writing explanations is it serves to tie together findings, data, and scientific principles. What Makes a Question Essential? Second, look at these additional examples, organized by subject area, to spark your thinking and clarify the qualities of essential questions, or EQs. Essential Questions in History and Social Studies Whose "story" is this? How can we know what really happened in the past? How should governments balance the rights of individuals with the common good? Should _______ (e.g., immigration, media expression) be restricted or regulated?

Claim Evidence Reasoning By far, the biggest shift in my teaching from year 1 to year 7 has been how much emphasis I now place on evaluating evidence and making evidence-based claims. I blame inquiry. Not inquiry in the generalized, overloaded, science teaching approach sense. Just the word. "Inquiry." Even now, when I hear the word "inquiry" I still think mainly of asking questions and designing experiments.

Teaching Critical Thinking Teaching Critical Thinking Reasoning from Evidence to Claims In addition to evaluating the reliability of evidence, one must ask whether the movement from evidence to claims or sub-claims is warranted. Certain tests for reasoning are especially useful in particular fields (e.g., tests of statistical reasoning).

MindShift MindShift explores the future of learning in all its dimensions. We examine how learning is being impacted by technology, discoveries about how the brain works, poverty and inequities, social and emotional practices, assessments, digital games, design thinking and music, among many other topics. We look at how learning is evolving in the classroom and beyond.We also revisit old ideas that have come full circle in the era of the over scheduled child, such as unschooling, tinkering, playing in the woods, mindfulness, inquiry-based learning and student motivation. We report on shifts in how educators practice their craft as they apply innovative ideas to help students learn, while meeting the rigorous demands of their standards and curriculum.

How Teachers Learn:Fostering Reflection Lana M. Danielson Teachers face a myriad of daily choices: how to organize classrooms and curriculums, how to interpret students' behaviors, how to protect learning time, and so forth. Many choices involve matters so routine that a teacher can make and implement decisions automatically. 10 Reasons To Try 20% Time In The Classroom If you haven’t heard of 20% time in the classroom, the premise is simple: Give your students 20% of their class time to learn what they want. Yes, that’s it. Below is a list of the 10 reasons you should consider 20% time in your school, and you will not regret making that choice! 1.

25 Question Stems Framed Around Bloom's Taxonomy 25 Question Stems Framed Around Bloom’s Taxonomy While critical thinking is a foundation rather than a brick, how you build that foundation depends on the learning process itself: exposing students to new thinking and promoting interaction with that thinking in a gradual release of responsibility approach. Question stems can be a powerful part of that process no matter where the learner is.

5 Good Ideas for High Schools to Adapt from Elementary Schools Always on the lookout for ways to help high schools run more smoothly and effectively, I keep noticing that many good ideas for improving high school programs and policies look a lot like the way elementary schools operate. I wonder if some of these ideas from K-5 schools could be adapted for high schools. For example … Four Essential Principles of Blended Learning As schools become more savvy about blended-learning tactics– the practice of mixing online and in-person instruction — guidelines and best practices are emerging from lessons learned. Here are four crucial factors to keep in mind as schools plunge in. The single biggest piece of advice offered by most blended learning pioneers is to have a cohesive vision for how the technology will enhance specific learning goals, how it will ease the burden on teachers, and how it can make both teachers and students more creative learners. A big part of creating that vision is having strong leadership at all levels.

Education Update:Planning for Processing Time Yields Deeper Learning:Guidelines for Creating Rubrics August 2013 | Volume 55 | Number 8 Planning for Processing Time Yields Deeper Learning Pages 2-2 Bryan Goodwin and Elizabeth Ross Hubbell's new book The 12 Touchstones of Good Teaching: A Checklist for Staying Focused Every Day includes a chapter on how to clarify performance expectations for students. Rubrics are an essential tool for delineating the criteria that distinguishes between novice and mastery-level work. Here are a few brief guidelines Goodwin and Hubbell recommend for creating rubrics, as well as a list of online tools to support your work: Identify the proficient level first. In a four-tier rubric, we recommend that teachers identify level 3 of the rubric first.

Bell Ringer Exercises Because of pressure to teach bell-to-bell -- the pedagogical equivalent of force-feeding geese to make foie gras -- many classrooms now start with bell work, short exercises that students complete while the instructor attends to attendance and other administrative chores. Journal prompts and concept questions can focus students on nutritious academic content and initiate a positive tempo for the next 90 minutes of class. With the help of graduate student David Fictum, I collected several creative, practical and entertaining exercises that can function as bell ringers or sponge activities. Here they are: Journaling Education über-blogger Vicki Davis writes 20 things she is thankful for in a joy journal, citing research studies indicating that this practice produces greater long-term happiness than winning the lottery -- serious happy.

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