Protestant Reformation | Theopedia "The Protestant Reformation was a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Its religious aspects were supplemented by ambitious political rulers who wanted to extend their power and control at the expense of the Church. The Reformation ended the unity imposed by medieval Christianity and, in the eyes of many historians, signaled the beginning of the modern era. A weakening of the old order was already under way in Northern Europe, as evidenced by the emergence of thriving new cities and a determined middle class. "In 1517, in one of the signal events of western history, Martin Luther, a German Augustinian monk, posted 95 theses on a church door in the university town of Wittenberg. "The movement quickly gained adherents in the German states, the Netherlands, Scandinavia, Scotland and portions of France. Precursors to the Reformation John Wycliffe John Huss Prominent figures in the Reformation Martin Luther Notes
The Reformation Help support New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only $19.99... The usual term for the religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the sixteenth century, and which, while ostensibly aiming at an internal renewal of the Church, really led to a great revolt against it, and an abandonment of the principal Christian beliefs. We shall review the general characteristics of this movement from the following standpoints: Causes of the Reformation The causes of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century must be sought as far back as the fourteenth. Since the barbarian invasions the Church had effected a complete transformation and revival of the races of Western Europe, and a glorious development of religious and intellectual life. Closely connected with the above were various abuses in the lives of the clergy and the people.
Church thanks God for insights of Reformation | NZ Catholic Newspaper by MICHAEL OTTO A New Zealand Catholic theologian has noted some of the theological and spiritual insights all churches have received through the Protestant Reformation. NZ Catholic asked Fr Mervyn Duffy, SM, a member of the Catholic-Methodist dialogue of New Zealand, to comment on parts of a new ecumenical prayer service guideline written to mark the 500th anniversary of the Reformation. The service, released on January 11, was prepared by a task force made up of representatives of the official Lutheran-Catholic Commission on Unity. Catholic bishops’ conferences and Lutheran churches around the world are invited to use the prayer service as part of local commemorations of the anniversary in 2017. Included is material to be adapted to local liturgical and musical traditions of Catholic and Lutheran churches.
Reform movement A reform movement is a kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society, rather than rapid or fundamental changes. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements. Reformists' ideas are often grounded in liberalism, although they may be rooted in socialist (specifically, social democratic) or religious concepts. Great Britain and United Kingdom: late 18th century to early 20th The Chartist movement Chartist meeting, Kennington Common, 1848 The Chartist movement sought universal suffrage. The idea of universal male suffrage, an initial goal of the Chartist movement, was to include all males as voters regardless of their social standing. The Women's reform movement A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792 A militant campaign to include women in the electorate originated in Victorian times. Reform in Parliament Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey Monument, Newcastle upon Tyne
Reform Movements of the 19th Century Inspired by the Second Great Awakening and Transcendentalism, Americans started a number of social reform movements in the antebellum era, including the fight against alcohol and slavery and the fight for public schools, humane prisons and asylums, and women's rights. Explore our library of over 10,000 lessons Click "next lesson" whenever you finish a lesson and quiz. Got It You now have full access to our lessons and courses. You're 25% of the way through this course! Way to go! Congratulations on earning a badge for watching 10 videos but you've only scratched the surface. You've just earned a badge for watching 50 different lessons. You have earned a badge for watching 20 minutes of lessons. You have earned a badge for watching 50 minutes of lessons. You have earned a badge for watching 100 minutes of lessons. You have earned a badge for watching 250 minutes of lessons. You have earned a badge for watching 500 minutes of lessons. You have earned a badge for watching 1000 minutes of lessons.
Karl Marx and Social Reform by Eduard Bernstein (1897) Eduard Bernstein (1897) Karl Marx and Social Reform Source: Progressive Review, no 7, April 1897. To the average Englishman Karl Marx is in regard to social politics an ultra- revolutionary State-Socialist, the advocate of violent overthrow of all constituted order in government. What was Marx’s position to social reform? Now it is certainly true that from about 1846 there runs through all writings of Marx an identical line of thought. It is curious indeed how sensible people have not hesitated a moment to put into the mouth of a man whose keen intellect they profess to admire, the most idiotic nonsense. Marx’s social theory is based on what he has called historic materialism, a conception of history worked out by himself and Frederick Engels in the forties of this century. It is in this sense that Marx says in the preface to Das Kapital: People have stigmatised the materialistic conception of history as historic fatalism. So much for the objective side of social evolution. Notes 1. 2. 3.
List of Famous Social Reformers - Biographies, Timelines, Trivia & Life History Where would the human society be today had it not been for the several thousands of social reformers all over the world, who since the beginning of civilization have strived to make the world a better place? Social reformers advocate reforms and play a key role in the development of society and nation building. The human society is not perfect and the social norms and conditions that are ingrained into the structure of the society are often biased against certain sections of the society. People who are distressed by the malpractices and injustices in the society and strive to bring about a change are the social reformers. A reform movement led by social activists aims to bring about a gradual change in the society by bringing about awareness about the issues in hand. Every country has its own stories about the atrocities meted out to certain segments of its population and the brave men and women who dared to question the authoritative society in their fight for their basic rights.
RACE - The Power of an Illusion . Background Readings The Historical Origins and Development of Racism by George M. Fredrickson Racism exists when one ethnic group or historical collectivity dominates, excludes, or seeks to eliminate another on the basis of differences that it believes are hereditary and unalterable. The period of the Renaissance and Reformation was also the time when Europeans were coming into increasing contact with people of darker pigmentation in Africa, Asia, and the Americas and were making judgments about them. During the Enlightenment, a secular or scientific theory of race moved the subject away from the Bible, with its insistence on the essential unity of the human race. The Nineteenth century was an age of emancipation, nationalism, and imperialism--all of which contributed to the growth and intensification of ideological racism in Europe and the United States. The climax of the history of racism came in the twentieth century in the rise and fall of what might be called overtly racist regimes. George M.
Presbyterians and the Political Theology of Race: [Part 1] - Cultural Captivity? At the National Prayer Breakfast on February 5 President Obama called Christians to exercise humility in their responses to Muslim acts of terror, referencing some of the great sins of the Christian tradition. His comments provoked a sharp backlash, much of it focused on whether or not the Crusades were a cause of Islamic terrorism. But Christians were more muted in their response to the president's allusion to slavery and the oppression of Jim Crow segregation. Thankfully, Sean Lucas has helped readers of Reformation 21 do that in his series of five posts on race and the Presbyterian Church in America (PCA) in early February. Many evangelicals have comforted themselves about slavery and segregation with the assumption that Christian support for such systemic injustice was the result of the church's past "cultural captivity." In recent years historians have abandoned the "cultural captivity" thesis. In his Lift Up Your Voice Like a Trumpet, Michael B. NB. Matthew J. Notes: