Protestant Reformation | Theopedia "The Protestant Reformation was a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Its religious aspects were supplemented by ambitious political rulers who wanted to extend their power and control at the expense of the Church. The Reformation ended the unity imposed by medieval Christianity and, in the eyes of many historians, signaled the beginning of the modern era. A weakening of the old order was already under way in Northern Europe, as evidenced by the emergence of thriving new cities and a determined middle class. "In 1517, in one of the signal events of western history, Martin Luther, a German Augustinian monk, posted 95 theses on a church door in the university town of Wittenberg. "The movement quickly gained adherents in the German states, the Netherlands, Scandinavia, Scotland and portions of France. Precursors to the Reformation John Wycliffe John Huss Prominent figures in the Reformation Martin Luther Notes
History: Renaissance for Kids Back to History for Kids The Renaissance was a period of time from the 14th to the 17th century in Europe. This era bridged the time between the Middle Ages and modern times. The word "Renaissance" means "rebirth". Coming out of the Dark The Middle Ages began with the fall of the Roman Empire. The Renaissance was a time of "coming out of the dark". A Cultural Movement A big part of the Renaissance was a cultural movement called humanism. The Mona Lisa - perhaps the world's most famous painting - was painted during the Renaissance It began in Italy The Renaissance started in Florence, Italy and spread to other city-states in Italy. City-states played a big role in the rule of Italy at the time. The Renaissance Man The term Renaissance Man refers to a person that is an expert and talented in many areas. Fun Facts about the Renaissance One of the most popular Greek philosophers was Plato. Learn more about the Renaissance: Works Cited Go here to test your knowledge with a word search.
Johannes Gutenberg - Inventor German inventor Johannes Gutenberg developed a method of movable type and used it to create one of the Western world's first major printed books, the “Forty-Two-Line” Bible. Synopsis Johannes Gutenberg was born circa 1395, in Mainz, Germany. He started experimenting with printing by 1438. In 1450 Gutenberg obtained backing from the financier, Johann Fust, whose impatience and other factors led to Gutenberg's loss of his establishment to Fust several years later. Gutenberg's masterpiece, and the first book ever printed in Europe from movable type, is the “Forty-Two-Line” Bible, completed no later than 1455. Early Life Born into a modest merchant family in Mainz, Germany, circa 1395, Johannes Gutenberg’s work as an inventor and printer would have a major impact on communication and learning worldwide. Experiments in Printing Financial Trouble In 1448, Johannes Gutenberg moved back to Mainz and by 1450 was operating a print shop. Later Life Related Videos
The Counter-Reformation The subject will be considered under the following heads: I. Significance of the term II. Low ebb of Catholic fortunes III. St. Ignatius and the Jesuits, pioneers of the new movement IV. Significance of the term The term Counter-Reformation denotes the period of Catholic revival from the pontificate of Pope Pius IV in 1560 to the close of the Thirty Years' War, 1648. Another point to be noticed is that, though we assign certain dates for the beginning and end of the period under consideration, there has never been any break in the striving of the Church against the heresies which arose in the sixteenth century. The span of time during which this enthusiasm lasted may be justly considered as an historical period, and it is that which we call the period of the Counter-Reformation. Low ebb of Catholic fortunes "From the time of St. Germany Poland "Poland is in almost as hopeless a state." France and Spain "The disorders in France and Spain are too well known for me to speak of them."
The Reformation Help support New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only $19.99... The usual term for the religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the sixteenth century, and which, while ostensibly aiming at an internal renewal of the Church, really led to a great revolt against it, and an abandonment of the principal Christian beliefs. We shall review the general characteristics of this movement from the following standpoints: Causes of the Reformation The causes of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century must be sought as far back as the fourteenth. Since the barbarian invasions the Church had effected a complete transformation and revival of the races of Western Europe, and a glorious development of religious and intellectual life. Closely connected with the above were various abuses in the lives of the clergy and the people.
Renaissance Art - Facts & Summary By the end of the 15th century, Rome had displaced Florence as the principal center of Renaissance art, reaching a high point under the powerful and ambitious Pope Leo X (a son of Lorenzo de’ Medici). Three great masters–Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael–dominated the period known as the High Renaissance, which lasted roughly from the early 1490s until the sack of Rome by the troops of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of Spain in 1527. Leonardo (1452-1519) was the ultimate “Renaissance man” for the breadth of his intellect, interest and talent and his expression of humanist and classical values. Leonardo’s best-known works, including the “Mona Lisa” (1503-05), “The Virgin of the Rocks” (1485) and the fresco “The Last Supper” (1495-98), showcase his unparalleled ability to portray light and shadow, as well as the physical relationship between figures–humans, animals and objects alike–and the landscape around them.
FC74: The invention of the printing press and its effects Introduction At the height of the Hussite crisis in the early 1400's, when the authorities ordered 200 manuscripts of heretical writings burned, people on both sides realized quite well the significance of that act. Two hundred handwritten manuscripts would be hard to replace. Not only would it be a time consuming job, but also trained scribes would be hard to find. After all, most of them worked for the Church, and it seemed unlikely that the Church would loan out its scribes to copy the works of heretics. Like any other invention, the printing press came along and had an impact when the right conditions existed at the right time and place. If one process started the chain reaction of events that led to the invention of the printing press, it was the rise of towns in Western Europe that sparked trade with the outside world all the way to China. Block printing, carved on porcelain, had existed for centuries before making its way to Europe. The impact of the printing press
The Reformation Jean Calvin To contemporaries, the reordering of religion and the sundering of the social unity that it had once provided to European culture was the most significant development of the sixteenth century. It is impossible to understand the time without taking a look at this. The Pre-Reform The rediscovery of the learning of the ancient world, the printing press, and all the other forces that came together to create the Renaissance also affected the Church. The early years of the sixteenth century were graced by some great Christian humanist intellects: Erasmus, Lefèvre d'Etaples, and others. The Gallican Tradition Since Clovis, the French crown has had a special relationship to the church. Luther In 1517, a dispute about who was entitled to a cut of the revenues generated by itinerant papal indulgence sellers provoked the controversy that led the Augustinian monk, Martin Luther, to nail his 95 theses to the church door at Wittenburg. As it turns out, it could not. The Day of the Placards
Church thanks God for insights of Reformation | NZ Catholic Newspaper by MICHAEL OTTO A New Zealand Catholic theologian has noted some of the theological and spiritual insights all churches have received through the Protestant Reformation. NZ Catholic asked Fr Mervyn Duffy, SM, a member of the Catholic-Methodist dialogue of New Zealand, to comment on parts of a new ecumenical prayer service guideline written to mark the 500th anniversary of the Reformation. The service, released on January 11, was prepared by a task force made up of representatives of the official Lutheran-Catholic Commission on Unity. Catholic bishops’ conferences and Lutheran churches around the world are invited to use the prayer service as part of local commemorations of the anniversary in 2017. Included is material to be adapted to local liturgical and musical traditions of Catholic and Lutheran churches.