Protestant Reformation | Theopedia "The Protestant Reformation was a major 16th century European movement aimed initially at reforming the beliefs and practices of the Roman Catholic Church. Its religious aspects were supplemented by ambitious political rulers who wanted to extend their power and control at the expense of the Church. The Reformation ended the unity imposed by medieval Christianity and, in the eyes of many historians, signaled the beginning of the modern era. A weakening of the old order was already under way in Northern Europe, as evidenced by the emergence of thriving new cities and a determined middle class. "In 1517, in one of the signal events of western history, Martin Luther, a German Augustinian monk, posted 95 theses on a church door in the university town of Wittenberg. "The movement quickly gained adherents in the German states, the Netherlands, Scandinavia, Scotland and portions of France. Precursors to the Reformation John Wycliffe John Huss Prominent figures in the Reformation Martin Luther Notes
The Reformation Help support New Advent and get the full contents of this website as an instant download. Includes the Catholic Encyclopedia, Church Fathers, Summa, Bible and more — all for only $19.99... The usual term for the religious movement which made its appearance in Western Europe in the sixteenth century, and which, while ostensibly aiming at an internal renewal of the Church, really led to a great revolt against it, and an abandonment of the principal Christian beliefs. We shall review the general characteristics of this movement from the following standpoints: Causes of the Reformation The causes of the great religious revolt of the sixteenth century must be sought as far back as the fourteenth. Since the barbarian invasions the Church had effected a complete transformation and revival of the races of Western Europe, and a glorious development of religious and intellectual life. Closely connected with the above were various abuses in the lives of the clergy and the people.
History: Renaissance for Kids Back to History for Kids The Renaissance was a period of time from the 14th to the 17th century in Europe. This era bridged the time between the Middle Ages and modern times. The word "Renaissance" means "rebirth". Coming out of the Dark The Middle Ages began with the fall of the Roman Empire. The Renaissance was a time of "coming out of the dark". A Cultural Movement A big part of the Renaissance was a cultural movement called humanism. The Mona Lisa - perhaps the world's most famous painting - was painted during the Renaissance It began in Italy The Renaissance started in Florence, Italy and spread to other city-states in Italy. City-states played a big role in the rule of Italy at the time. The Renaissance Man The term Renaissance Man refers to a person that is an expert and talented in many areas. Fun Facts about the Renaissance One of the most popular Greek philosophers was Plato. Learn more about the Renaissance: Works Cited Go here to test your knowledge with a word search.
Johannes Gutenberg - Inventor German inventor Johannes Gutenberg developed a method of movable type and used it to create one of the Western world's first major printed books, the “Forty-Two-Line” Bible. Synopsis Johannes Gutenberg was born circa 1395, in Mainz, Germany. He started experimenting with printing by 1438. In 1450 Gutenberg obtained backing from the financier, Johann Fust, whose impatience and other factors led to Gutenberg's loss of his establishment to Fust several years later. Gutenberg's masterpiece, and the first book ever printed in Europe from movable type, is the “Forty-Two-Line” Bible, completed no later than 1455. Early Life Born into a modest merchant family in Mainz, Germany, circa 1395, Johannes Gutenberg’s work as an inventor and printer would have a major impact on communication and learning worldwide. Experiments in Printing Financial Trouble In 1448, Johannes Gutenberg moved back to Mainz and by 1450 was operating a print shop. Later Life Related Videos
Church thanks God for insights of Reformation | NZ Catholic Newspaper by MICHAEL OTTO A New Zealand Catholic theologian has noted some of the theological and spiritual insights all churches have received through the Protestant Reformation. NZ Catholic asked Fr Mervyn Duffy, SM, a member of the Catholic-Methodist dialogue of New Zealand, to comment on parts of a new ecumenical prayer service guideline written to mark the 500th anniversary of the Reformation. The service, released on January 11, was prepared by a task force made up of representatives of the official Lutheran-Catholic Commission on Unity. Catholic bishops’ conferences and Lutheran churches around the world are invited to use the prayer service as part of local commemorations of the anniversary in 2017. Included is material to be adapted to local liturgical and musical traditions of Catholic and Lutheran churches.
Martin Luther and the 95 Theses - Facts & Summary Committed to the idea that salvation could be reached through faith and by divine grace only, Luther vigorously objected to the corrupt practice of selling indulgences. Acting on this belief, he wrote the “Disputation on the Power and Efficacy of Indulgences,” also known as “The 95 Theses,” a list of questions and propositions for debate. Popular legend has it that on October 31, 1517 Luther defiantly nailed a copy of his 95 Theses to the door of the Wittenberg Castle church. The reality was probably not so dramatic; Luther more likely hung the document on the door of the church matter-of-factly to announce the ensuing academic discussion around it that he was organizing. The 95 Theses, which would later become the foundation of the Protestant Reformation, were written in a remarkably humble and academic tone, questioning rather than accusing. In addition to his criticisms of indulgences, Luther also reflected popular sentiment about the “St.
Renaissance Art - Facts & Summary By the end of the 15th century, Rome had displaced Florence as the principal center of Renaissance art, reaching a high point under the powerful and ambitious Pope Leo X (a son of Lorenzo de’ Medici). Three great masters–Leonardo da Vinci, Michelangelo and Raphael–dominated the period known as the High Renaissance, which lasted roughly from the early 1490s until the sack of Rome by the troops of the Holy Roman Emperor Charles V of Spain in 1527. Leonardo (1452-1519) was the ultimate “Renaissance man” for the breadth of his intellect, interest and talent and his expression of humanist and classical values. Leonardo’s best-known works, including the “Mona Lisa” (1503-05), “The Virgin of the Rocks” (1485) and the fresco “The Last Supper” (1495-98), showcase his unparalleled ability to portray light and shadow, as well as the physical relationship between figures–humans, animals and objects alike–and the landscape around them.
FC74: The invention of the printing press and its effects Introduction At the height of the Hussite crisis in the early 1400's, when the authorities ordered 200 manuscripts of heretical writings burned, people on both sides realized quite well the significance of that act. Two hundred handwritten manuscripts would be hard to replace. Not only would it be a time consuming job, but also trained scribes would be hard to find. After all, most of them worked for the Church, and it seemed unlikely that the Church would loan out its scribes to copy the works of heretics. Like any other invention, the printing press came along and had an impact when the right conditions existed at the right time and place. If one process started the chain reaction of events that led to the invention of the printing press, it was the rise of towns in Western Europe that sparked trade with the outside world all the way to China. Block printing, carved on porcelain, had existed for centuries before making its way to Europe. The impact of the printing press
Reform movement A reform movement is a kind of social movement that aims to make gradual change, or change in certain aspects of society, rather than rapid or fundamental changes. A reform movement is distinguished from more radical social movements such as revolutionary movements. Reformists' ideas are often grounded in liberalism, although they may be rooted in socialist (specifically, social democratic) or religious concepts. Great Britain and United Kingdom: late 18th century to early 20th The Chartist movement Chartist meeting, Kennington Common, 1848 The Chartist movement sought universal suffrage. The idea of universal male suffrage, an initial goal of the Chartist movement, was to include all males as voters regardless of their social standing. The Women's reform movement A Vindication of the Rights of Woman, 1792 A militant campaign to include women in the electorate originated in Victorian times. Reform in Parliament Charles Grey, 2nd Earl Grey Monument, Newcastle upon Tyne