Control Data Corporation (CDC) 6600 In 1962, Seymour Cray opened a Control Data Corporation laboratory near Chippewa Falls, Wisconsin, where he led the design of the CDC 6600 computer. This machine, which was announced in 1964, sold for around $7 million and was the first computer designed in the Chippewa Falls area. The CDC 6600 is believed to have been the first computer to be designated as a "supercomputer," offering the fastest clock speed for its day (100 nanoseconds). It was one of the first computers to use Freon refrigerant cooling and was also the first commercial computer to use a CRT console. (CDC checkout engineers created computer games such as Baseball, Lunar Lander, and Space Wars, which became incentives for getting the machines operational. These are thought to be the first computer games that used monitors.) NCAR accepted delivery of a CDC 6600 in late December 1965. The CDC 6600 was a large-scale, solid-state, general-purpose computing system. The CDC 6600 had 65,000 60-bit words of memory.
The Rediscovery of Man The Rediscovery of Man: The Complete Short Science Fiction of Cordwainer Smith (ISBN 0-915368-56-0) is a 1993 book containing the complete collected short fiction of science fiction author Cordwainer Smith. It was edited by James A. Mann and published by NESFA Press. Most of the stories take place in Smith's future history set in the universe of the Instrumentality of Mankind; the collection is arranged in the chronological order in which the stories take place in the fictional timeline. The collection also contains short stories which do not take place in this universe. Within the context of the future history, the Rediscovery of Mankind refers to the Instrumentality's re-introduction of chance and unhappiness into the sterile utopia that they had created for humanity. List of Instrumentality of Man stories "No, No, Not Rogov!"" "The Queen of the Afternoon" is a posthumous sequel to "Mark Elf". Stories marked with an asterisk were published posthumously. Other stories
ARPANET History Creation The first-generation IMPs were initially built by BBN Technologies using a rugged computer version of the Honeywell DDP-516 computer configured with 24kB of expandable core memory, and a 16-channel Direct Multiplex Control (DMC) direct memory access unit. The DMC established custom interfaces with each of the host computers and modems. In addition to the front-panel lamps, the DDP-516 computer also features a special set of 24 indicator-lamps showing the status of the IMP communication channels. Each IMP could support up to four local hosts, and could communicate with up to six remote IMPs via leased lines. The network connected one computer in Utah with three in California. Misconceptions of design goals Common ARPANET lore posits that the computer network was designed to survive a nuclear attack. It was from the RAND study that the false rumor started, claiming that the ARPANET was somehow related to building a network resistant to nuclear war.
Ted Nelson Biography Nelson is the son of Emmy Award-winning director Ralph Nelson and the Academy Award-winning actress Celeste Holm. His parents' marriage was brief and he was mostly raised by his grandparents, first in Chicago and later in Greenwich Village. Nelson earned a BA from Swarthmore College in 1959. During college and graduate school, he envisioned a computer-based writing system that would provide a lasting repository for the world's knowledge and also permit greater flexibility of drawing connections between ideas. Xanadu Nelson founded Project Xanadu in 1960 with the goal of creating a computer network with a simple user interface. Nelson has stated that some aspects of his vision are being fulfilled by Tim Berners-Lee's invention of the World Wide Web, but he dislikes the World Wide Web, XML and all embedded markup – regarding Berners-Lee's work as a gross over-simplification of his original vision: Other projects ZigZag Influence and recognition
The 10 Founding Fathers of the Web While the phrase "founding fathers" is often used in conjunction with men like Benjamin Franklin, Thomas Jefferson and George Washington, we wanted the think about the phrase on the global level. And what is more global than the world wide web? Thus, this holiday, we're taking a look at 10 individuals who have been instrumental in helping to shape the world wide web and the culture of the Internet as we know it today. Check out our round up below to learn about some of the most influential people in the creation and development of the ideas and technologies that have led to today's web experience. 1. Why He Matters: Tim Berners-Lee is credited as the inventor of the World Wide Web. Berners-Lee founded and is the current director of the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C), a standards body that oversees the development of the web as a whole. 2. Why He Matters: Marc Andreessen co-authored Mosaic, the first widely-used web browser and he founded Netscape Communications. 3. 4, 5, 6. 7. 8. 9.
Simulated reality Simulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated—for example by computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality. It could contain conscious minds which may or may not be fully aware that they are living inside a simulation. This is quite different from the current, technologically achievable concept of virtual reality. Virtual reality is easily distinguished from the experience of actuality; participants are never in doubt about the nature of what they experience. Simulated reality, by contrast, would be hard or impossible to separate from "true" reality. There has been much debate over this topic, ranging from philosophical discourse to practical applications in computing. Types of simulation Brain-computer interface Virtual people In a virtual-people simulation, every inhabitant is a native of the simulated world. Arguments Simulation argument 1. 2. 3. Relativity of reality Computationalism Dreaming
Donald Davies Donald Watts Davies, CBE, FRS (7 June 1924 – 28 May 2000) was a Welsh computer scientist who was one of the two independent inventors of packet switched computer networking, and originator of the term, and the Internet itself can be traced directly back to his work. Career history Davies was born in Treorchy in the Rhondda Valley, Wales. He received a BSc degree in physics (1943) at Imperial College London, and then joined the war effort working as an assistant to Klaus Fuchs on the nuclear weapons Tube Alloys project at Birmingham University. He then returned to Imperial taking a first class degree in mathematics (1947); he was also awarded the Lubbock memorial Prize as the outstanding mathematician of his year. In 1955, he married Diane Burton; they had a daughter and two sons. From 1947, he worked at the National Physical Laboratory (NPL) where Alan Turing was designing the Automatic Computing Engine (ACE) computer. Books Family See also
Serial Experiments Lain Serial Experiments Lain (シリアルエクスペリメンツレイン Shiriaru Ekusuperimentsu Rein), is an anime series directed by Ryutaro Nakamura, original character design by Yoshitoshi ABe, screenplay written by Chiaki J. Konaka, and produced by Yasuyuki Ueda (credited as production 2nd) for Triangle Staff. It was broadcast on TV Tokyo from July to September 1998. A PlayStation game with the same title was released in November 1998 by Pioneer LDC. The anime series was licensed in North America by Geneon (formerly Pioneer Entertainment) on DVD, VHS, and LaserDisc. However, Geneon closed its USA division in December 2007 and the series went out-of-print as a result. However, at Anime Expo 2010, North American distributor Funimation Entertainment announced that it has licensed the series and was re-released in 2012. However, Funimation released few episodes on YouTube. Plot Characters Lain Iwakura (岩倉 玲音, Iwakura Rein?) Masami Eiri (英利 政美, Eiri Masami?) The key designer of Protocol Seven.
Paul Baran Paul Baran (April 29, 1926 – March 26, 2011) was a Polish-American engineer who was a pioneer in the development of computer networks. He was one of the two independent inventors of packet switched computer networking, and went on to start several companies and develop other technologies that are an essential part of the Internet and other modern digital communication. Early life Paul Baran was born in Grodno, Second Polish Republic (now part of Belarus) on April 29, 1926. He was the youngest of three children in a Jewish family, with the Yiddish given name "Pesach". Packet switched network design Using the mini-computer technology of the day, Baran and his team developed a simulation suite to test basic connectivity of an array of nodes with varying degrees of linking. After proving survivability Baran and his team needed to show proof of concept for this design such that it could be built. Selling the idea Later work Death Awards and honors
Schumann resonances Animation of Schumann resonance in Earth's atmosphere. The Schumann resonances (SR) are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. Description This global electromagnetic resonance phenomenon is named after physicist Winfried Otto Schumann who predicted it mathematically in 1952. In the normal mode descriptions of Schumann resonances, the fundamental mode is a standing wave in the Earth–ionosphere cavity with a wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth. Observations of Schumann resonances have been used to track global lightning activity. History In 1893, George Francis FitzGerald noted that the upper layers of the atmosphere must be fairly good conductors. Basic theory In an ideal cavity, the resonant frequency of the -th mode
Officers and Directors - Robert E. Kahn Robert E. Kahn Robert E. Kahn is Chairman, CEO and President of the Corporation for National Research Initiatives (CNRI), which he founded in 1986 after a thirteen year term at the U.S. Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA). After receiving a B.E.E. from the City College of New York in 1960, Dr. In his recent work, Dr. Dr. He is a recipient of the AFIPS Harry Goode Memorial Award, the Marconi Award, the ACM SIGCOMM Award, the President's Award from ACM, the IEEE Koji Kobayashi Computer and Communications Award, the IEEE Alexander Graham Bell Medal, the IEEE Third Millennium Medal, the ACM Software Systems Award, the Computerworld/Smithsonian Award, the ASIS Special Award and the Public Service Award from the Computing Research Board. Dr.
Roswell UFO incident Coordinates: The Roswell UFO incident took place in the U.S. in June or July 1947, when an airborne object crashed on a ranch near Roswell, New Mexico. Explanations of what took place are based on both official and unofficial communications. Although the crash is attributed to a secret U.S. military Air Force surveillance balloon by the U.S. government, the most famous explanation of what occurred is that the object was a spacecraft containing extraterrestrial life. Since the late 1970s, the Roswell incident has been the subject of much controversy, and conspiracy theories have arisen about the event. The United States Armed Forces maintains that what was recovered near Roswell was debris from the crash of an experimental high-altitude surveillance balloon belonging to what was then a classified (top secret) program named Mogul. Subsequently the incident faded from the attention of UFO researchers for over 30 years. Contemporary accounts Witnesses
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