A defence mechanism is a coping technique that reduces anxiety arising from unacceptable or potentially harmful impulses. Defence mechanisms are unconscious and are not to be confused with conscious coping strategies. Sigmund Freud was one of the first proponents of this construct. Healthy persons normally use different defences throughout life. An ego defence mechanism becomes pathological only when its persistent use leads to maladaptive behaviour such that the physical or mental health of the individual is adversely affected. The purpose of ego defence mechanisms is to protect the mind/self/ego from anxiety and/or social sanctions and/or to provide a refuge from a situation with which one cannot currently cope. One resource used to evaluate these mechanisms is the Defense Style Questionnaire (DSQ-40). Structural model: Id, ego, and superego Freud believed that conflicts between these two structures resulted in conflicts associated with psychosexual stages.
Related: Profound Ideas
Fear mongeringFear mongering (or scaremongering or scare tactics) is the use of fear to influence the opinions and actions of others towards some specific end. The feared object or subject is sometimes exaggerated, and the pattern of fear mongering is usually one of repetition, in order to continuously reinforce the intended effects of this tactic, sometimes in the form of a vicious circle. Examples Campaign advertisements "Daisy" advertisement As the firestorm rages, a voice-over from President Johnson states, "These are the stakes! Another fear-mongering classic occurred during the 1988 presidential campaign ad featuring a frightening mug-shot of convict Willie Horton. Product advertisements See also References
Cognitive distortionCognitive distortions are thoughts that cause individuals to perceive reality inaccurately. According to the cognitive model of Beck, a negative outlook on reality, sometimes called negative schemas (or schemata), is a factor in symptoms of emotional dysfunction and poorer subjective well-being. Specifically, negative thinking patterns cause negative emotions. During difficult circumstances, these distorted thoughts can contribute to an overall negative outlook on the world and a depressive or anxious mental state. Challenging and changing cognitive distortions is a key element of cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT). History In 1980 Burns published Feeling Good: The New Mood Therapy (with a preface by Beck), and nine years later The Feeling Good Handbook, both of which built on Beck's work. Main types Examples of some common cognitive distortions seen in depressed and anxious individuals. Always being right Being wrong is unthinkable. Blaming Personalizing
AerogelA block of aerogel in a person's hand Aerogel was first created by Samuel Stephens Kistler in 1931, as a result of a bet with Charles Learned over who could replace the liquid in "jellies" with gas without causing shrinkage. IUPAC definition Gel comprised of a microporous solid in which the dispersed phase is a gas. Note 1: Microporous silica, microporous glass, and zeolites are common examples of aerogels. Note 2: Corrected from ref. , where the definition is a repetition of the incorrect definition of a gel followed by an inexplicit reference to the porosity of the structure.  Properties A flower is on a piece of aerogel which is suspended over a flame from a Bunsen burner. Aerogels are good thermal insulators because they almost nullify two of the three methods of heat transfer (convection, conduction, and radiation). Owing to its hygroscopic nature, aerogel feels dry and acts as a strong desiccant. Knudsen effect Materials Silica Carbon Alumina
Jacques LacanJacques-Marie Émile Lacan Leben und Werk[Bearbeiten] Lacan war bis an sein Lebensende praktizierender Psychoanalytiker. Aufgrund seiner unorthodoxen Behandlungsmethoden (er variierte beispielsweise die Sitzungsdauer willkürlich, verkürzte sie bisweilen auf wenige Minuten und behandelte vorschriftswidrig akut suizidgefährdete Patienten) wurde er von manchen Kollegen als Scharlatan angesehen. In den Jahren 1953 bis 1954 vollführte Lacan eine Wendung, mit der er seine Anlehnung an Hegel (Hegelianismus Kojèvescher Art) zugunsten des Strukturalismus aufgab. Als Lacan sich mit der Funktion des Symbolischen und der Notwendigkeit eines Vertrags zwischen dem „Ich“ und dem „kleinen Anderen“ beschäftigte, stützte er sich auf den Begriff der „Struktur“, der genau äquivalent zu dem der „Sprache“ ist. Er starb an Nierenversagen am 9. Lacans Werk gilt als äußerst schwer zugänglich. Privatleben[Bearbeiten] Vier Grundannahmen der Lacanschen Theorie[Bearbeiten] Das begehrende Subjekt[Bearbeiten]
Looking Up (Hacking Positivity) | Nov 20 '12The Real And Quantifiable Line Between Freedom And Slavery I powered through this very quickly, so apologies in advance for the inevitable grammars errors. Stuff like this makes me angry. His analogy of medical school syndrome is so apocryphal that it triggers an involuntary reaction in my hand to punch Shawn Achor through the screen. I would argue that negativity is what distinguishes great people. Depressed people are depressed because they smart enough to know something is not right. Before everyone accuses me of simply being a complainer, of not working hard enough - we need to immediately dispel the myth that a person can achieve any improvement to society on his own. Depressed people want to be happy. Did I mention that Shawn Achor should shut the fuck up?
Function (engineering)In the lifecycle of engineering projects, there are usually distinguished subsequently: Requirements and Functional specification documents. The Requirements usually specifies the most important attributes of the requested system. In the Design specification documents, physical or software processes and systems are frequently the requested functions. For advertising and marketing of technical products, the number of functions they can perform is often counted and used for promotion. For example a calculator capable of the basic mathematical operations of addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division, would be called a "four-function" model; when other operations are added, for example for scientific, financial, or statistical calculations, advertisers speak of "57 scientific functions", etc. Jump up ^ R.Barker, C.
Do we really give introverts a hard time?27 March 2012Last updated at 12:50 ET By Vanessa Barford BBC News Magazine In a group situation, it's not necessarily the talkers who have the best ideas It is often assumed extroverts do best in life, but according to a new best-selling book, introverts are just as high achievers. It claims there is a bias towards extroverts in Western society. So do we discriminate against introverts? Barack Obama, JK Rowling and Steve Wozniak. They might not immediately stand out as introverts, but according to Susan Cain, American author of Quiet: The Power of Introverts In a World That Can't Stop Talking, they are. That is because she says, contrary to popular opinion, introverts are not necessarily shy or anti-social, they just prefer environments that are not over-stimulating and get their energy from quiet time and reflection. Conversely, extroverts need to be around other people to recharge their batteries. Continue reading the main story Extroversion and introversion Continue reading the main story
ПостНаука - все, что вы хотели знать о науке, но не знали, у кого спроситьScience & Nature - Human Body and Mind - Body - Brain MapDunning–Kruger effectCognitive bias in which people of low ability mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is In the field of psychology, the Dunning–Kruger effect is a cognitive bias in which people mistakenly assess their cognitive ability as greater than it is. It is related to the cognitive bias of illusory superiority and comes from the inability of people to recognize their lack of ability. As described by social psychologists David Dunning and Justin Kruger, the cognitive bias of illusory superiority results from an internal illusion in people of low ability and from an external misperception in people of high ability; that is, "the miscalibration of the incompetent stems from an error about the self, whereas the miscalibration of the highly competent stems from an error about others Definition Original study Later studies On average, men overestimate their abilities by 30% and women by 15%. Underlying issues of numeracy Popular recognition