Descartes’ Method of Doubt and the Cogito: Part I | Veritas Vincit Tenebram In René Descartes’ Meditations on First Philosophy, Descartes creates a whole new method of doubt and skepticism for building a foundation for knowledge. This essay will primarily focus on Meditations I and II. In Meditation I, Descartes describes his method as comprised of three levels of doubt in which each level is more extreme than the one before it. His doubt is aimed at tearing down any presuppositions he once previously had accepted and starting over. His first level of doubt is aimed at his senses. Since the senses have deceived him in the past, he states that it is wise to deny the truth of them and to doubt that they provide him any truth to anything outside of him. The second level is to doubt whether he is awake or dreaming. The final level of doubt is the most radical of them all. Now under this new doubt, Descartes tries to prove what exactly is knowingly true in his Meditation II. Works Cited Kolak, Daniel, and Garrett Thomson. Like this: Like Loading...
Partially Examined Life Podcast - Plato's Republic Podcast: Play in new window | Download (Duration: 1:36:59 — 88.9MB) Discussing The Republic by Plato, primarily books 1 and 2. What is justice? What is the ideal type of government? In the dialogue, Socrates argues that justice is real (not just a fiction the strong make up) and that it’s not relative to who you are (in the sense that it would always be just to help your friends and hurt your enemies). Justice ends up being a matter of balancing your soul so the rational part is in control over the rest of you. The Republic is Plato’s utopia, described by analogy with justice in the individual: In the ideal state, the rational people will be in charge, and these leaders should go through rigorous conditioning and live communally (spouse sharing!) You’ll hear Wes and Dylan Casey talk about their St. Buy the book End song: “Manager,” from the 2011 New People album, Impossible Things (song written in 1997). If you enjoy the episode, please donate at least $1: by
Last Essay Musings — Pilgrim Theological College by Bethany Broadstock My last essay is in! That puts me two-thirds of the way through this theology degree and I have some reflections on why I would recommend it to anyone. First: it won’t just affirm you and everything you believe, know or think you believe and know. Some of them you will lose forever – it will deconstruct belief and reassemble it again differently or not at all. You will almost walk in front of a bus wondering whether the whole thing is even legit and you won’t fear that question anymore and you’ll never read the Bible in the same way again. Sometimes you’ll stand at an academic distance from the figure of Jesus who is the subject of philosophy, history and abstract concepts and sometimes you will meet head-on the Christ who awakens faith and hope and ‘goes before’ the disciples on the path to and through the cross and who beckons us to follow. You will cry. Anyone!
Nicomachean Ethics by Aristotle Commentary: Quite a few comments have been posted about Nicomachean Ethics. Download: A text-only version is available for download. Nicomachean EthicsBy Aristotle Written 350 B.C.E Translated by W. D. Wittgenstein and Philosophy The Stone is a forum for contemporary philosophers and other thinkers on issues both timely and timeless. “To show the fly the way out of the fly bottle ”— that, Wittgenstein once said, was the aim of his philosophy. While it is perhaps unclear whether anyone — philosopher or fly — should be flattered by this comparison, his overall point is clear enough, as Paul Horwich notes in his recent piece, “Was Wittgenstein Right?” When we get curious about philosophical problems we are drawn into puzzles by the promise of sweet enlightenment, only to find ourselves caught in frustration (and banging our heads against the same wall over and over again). Locke’s view that there are human rights didn’t leave the world as it was, nor was it intended to. Horwich’s analysis is penetrating and important. Take the example that Horwich himself appeals to: truth. It is hard not to be sympathetic to the thought that philosophers are prone to overgeneralization. This is most obvious with ethical questions.
The Partially Examined Life Podcast - Nichomachean Ethics Podcast: Play in new window | Download (Duration: 1:41:17 — 100.7MB) Discussing Books 1 and 2. What is virtue, and how can I eat it? Do not enjoy this episode too much, or too little, but just the right amount. Buy the book or read it online. End song: A newly recorded cover of Billie Jean by Mark Lint and the TransAmerikanishers. Please support the podcast by becoming a PEL Citizen or making a donation. by
Costs of University - Enrolment Services – Apply The cost of a university education is a combination of tuition fees, books and other educational supplies, and living expenses. Fees are composed of tuition (academic) fees and compulsory incidental (non-academic) fees. Basic student tuition fees vary by program and faculty (see Tuition Fees for detailed information) but it is helpful to have a general idea of the educational costs you can expect in your first year: $6,040 and up for tuition fees, depending on your program and campus$1,185 and up for incidental and ancillary fees$1,000 and up for books and supplies$7,985 to $15,000 or more for residence, depending on where you choose to live, whether you purchase a meal plan, or buy and prepare your own food. Other Living expenses may include: Transportation – Information on current rates for public transit in Toronto can be obtained from the Toronto Transit Commission. Toiletries and personal care items Use the Budget Tool to help you manage your finances for the year.
Democritus - The Laughing Philosopher Definition: Democritus of Abdera (460-370 B.C.), one of the 2 founders of the atomist school of Greek natural philosophy was known as the laughing philosopher. The pre-Socratic Leucippus taught or was an associate of Democritus. Democritus is thought to have also known the philosopher Anaxagoras. Atomists believed that there were tiny indivisible particles that moved within the infinite void of space. They were trying to explain how there could be change without accepting the difficult idea that something could come into existence out of nothing. The indivisible particles (atoms) posited by atomists could be reformed into anything. Besides a theory of nature, Democritus was also responsible for an ethical theory, although it is difficult to tease out what he said from what others wrote, since none of his writing remains. Source: Berryman, Sylvia, "Democritus", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2004 Edition), Edward N.
Revision:Plato TSR Wiki > Study Help > Subjects and Revision > Revision Notes > Religious Studies > Plato The Analogy of the Cave In Plato’s Republic , he illustrates his ideas about human knowledge in relation to reality and so explains the Theory of the Forms. Plato’s allegory of the Cave tells us to imagine a dark, large cave, connected to the outside world by a long passage. In the cave, with their backs to the entrance, is a row of prisoners, with their hands tied down, unable to move. Behind them is a bright fire. One day, a prisoner is released and he turns round. If he was dragged out of the cave altogether, the sun light would blind him and he would be bewildered. The Cave: The visible world, our universe. Theory of the Forms Plato used the analogy of the cave to demonstrate his Theory of Forms and is the basis of Plato’s epistemology (theory of knowledge). There is a difference between the ONE and the MANY. The Forms are interconnected and arranged as a hierarchy. Plato on the Body and Soul
International student funding | Scholarships and Student Aid McGill recognizes the challenges International students can face when studying away from home. The Scholarships and Student Aid Office is committed to ensuring that qualified students from any geographic region are financially supported in their goals to enter and complete academic programs at the University. This page points to the various funding opportunities that will help support these goals. McGill Scholarships & Awards Newly admitted undergraduate students can apply to McGill’s Entrance Scholarship Program. Please visit McGill's publications site for various program calendars that provide comprehensive listings and information on awards. McGill Financial Aid The Scholarships and Student Aid Office administers need-based Financial Aid Programs for future and current undergraduates as well as current graduate students from Canada, US, and abroad. Other resources PBEEE - Quebec Merit Scholarship for Foreign Students
arist Some Main Points of Aristotle's Thought A. The Criticism of Plato's Theory of Forms: In general, Aristotle thought that Plato's theory of forms with its two separate realms failed to explain what it was meant to explain. Aristotle elaborated this general criticism into two more particular objections: 1. According to Plato, material objects participate in or imitate the forms. 2. This argument, like the first one, was first given by Plato himself in his later dialogues. B. Aristotle, then, thought that in order to explain coherence and objective knowledge in this world, form must be located in particular individual objects. All objects then have matter, or the material of which they are composed, and form, the way the matter is arranged. It is also the form of a thing that we know when we have knowledge of it. Aristotle also uses this distinction to explain how there can be both permanence and change in the world: C. D. E. God is also the ultimate final cause of all things. F. G.