The natural sciences are the sciences that seek to elucidate the rules that govern the natural world through scientific methods, the cornerstone of which is measured by quantitative data. Based on formal sciences, they also attempt to provide mathematical (either deterministic or stochastic) models of natural processes. The term "natural science" is used to distinguish the subject from the social sciences, such as economics, psychology and sociology, which apply the scientific method to the study of human behavior and social patterns; the humanities, which use a critical or analytical approach to study the human condition; and the formal sciences such as mathematics and logic, which use an a priori, as opposed to empirical methodology to study formal systems. There are five branches of natural science: astronomy, biology, chemistry, the Earth sciences and physics. Criteria Branches of natural science Biology Chemistry Materials science Physics
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SacrebleuSacrebleu is a very old French profanity meant as a cry of surprise or anger. Usage The expression today is not used at all in the major French-speaking countries France, Belgium, or Switzerland, but in the English-speaking world, it is well known from Agatha Christie's books about the fictional Belgian detective Hercule Poirot. A loose phonetic translation of the word, Goefeuchtebleu is also used in Flemish and German languages. Most French dictionaries state "sacrebleu" to be equivalent to "sacredieu". An equivalent English phrase is a minced oath such as "gosh darn it" (for "god damn it") where the strong religious terms are euphemized, as the term bleu in the French curse. Origin The phrase originated from the swear words "sacré bleu", a Marian oath, referring to the color (i.e., "sacred blue") associated with Mary, mother of Jesus. See also References Jump up ^ Surhone, Lambert (2010). External links
MonismeUn article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Monisme métaphysique - Définition[modifier | modifier le code] Le monisme s'oppose aussi à toutes les écoles philosophiques construites sur la multiplicité intrinsèque du réel, comme l'atomisme de Démocrite qui envisage le cosmos comme un assemblage de vide et d'une infinité d'atomes, atomes appartenant secondairement à un nombre fini de catégories atomiques de natures différentes. Concernant les fondamentaux métaphysiques du monisme, certains penseurs refusent de confondre monisme et non-dualité. Le grand théoricien de la non-dualité est l'indien Adi Shankara (IXe siècle) qui a construit toute une logique (au sens des logiciens) qui réfute le principe du tiers-exclu et qui récuse aussi tout usage du OU exclusif. En Occident, le monisme apparaît chez certains présocratiques comme Héraclite qui prétend que tout est Feu, ou comme Thalès qui affirme, lui que tout est Eau, ou encore comme Anaximandre pour lequel tout est Apeiron. D'aucuns[Qui ?]
Formal scienceFormal sciences are disciplines concerned with formal systems, such as logic, mathematics, statistics, theoretical computer science, information theory, game theory, systems theory, decision theory, and portions of linguistics. Whereas the natural sciences seek to characterize physical systems, the formal sciences are concerned with characterizing abstract structures described by sign systems. The formal sciences aid the natural sciences by providing information about the structures the latter use to describe the world, and what inferences may be made about them. History Formal sciences began before the formulation of scientific method, with the most ancient mathematical texts dating back to 1800 BC (Babylonian mathematics), 1600 BC (Egyptian mathematics) and 1000 BC (Indian mathematics). Besides mathematics, logic is another example of one of oldest subjects in the field of the formal sciences. Differences from other forms of science See also References
Computational sociologyComputational sociology is a branch of sociology that uses computationally intensive methods to analyze and model social phenomena. Using computer simulations, artificial intelligence, complex statistical methods, and analytic approaches like social network analysis, computational sociology develops and tests theories of complex social processes through bottom-up modeling of social interactions. In relevant literature, computational sociology is often related to the study of social complexity. Social complexity concepts such as complex systems, non-linear interconnection among macro and micro process, and emergence, have entered the vocabulary of computational sociology. A practical and well-known example is the construction of a computational model in the form of an "artificial society", by which researchers can analyze the structure of a social system. History Background Agent-based models have had a historical influence on Computational Sociology. Impact
Cérat de GalienUn article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Cérat de Galien (cold cream) dans un petit pot. Le cérat de Galien ou cold cream est un excipient complexe utilisé dans différentes préparations officinales dermatologiques. La formule originale contient de la cire d'abeille et de l'huile d'amande douce (formant une pommade appelée cérat), du borate de sodium ainsi que de l'eau de rose. Histoire[modifier | modifier le code] L'invention de cette crème est attribuée à un médecin du IIe siècle de notre ère, Galien, né à Pergame en Asie. Le nom cold cream vient de la sensation fraîche que l'application de cette crème laisse sur la peau. Formule[modifier | modifier le code] L'ajout de teinture de benjoin à cette formule de base fait prendre à la préparation le nom cold cream. Plusieurs marques de produits de parapharmacie utilisent le nom générique cold cream en référence à une préparation similaire. Notes et références[modifier | modifier le code] Voir aussi[modifier | modifier le code]
Social scienceSocial science is an academic discipline concerned with society and the relationships among individuals within a society. It includes anthropology, economics, political science, psychology and sociology. In a wider sense, it may often include some fields in the humanities such as archaeology, history, law, and linguistics. The term may however be used in the specific context of referring to the original science of society, established in 19th century, sociology (Latin: socius, "companion"; Greek λόγος, lógos, "word", "knowledge", "study."). Émile Durkheim, Karl Marx and Max Weber are typically cited as the principal architects of modern social science by this definition. Positivist social scientists use methods resembling those of the natural sciences as tools for understanding society, and so define science in its stricter modern sense. History Branches Anthropology Anthropology is the holistic "science of man", a science of the totality of human existence.
CronyismCronyism is partiality to long-standing friends, especially by appointing them to positions of authority, regardless of their qualifications. Hence, cronyism is contrary in practice and principle to meritocracy. Cronyism exists when the appointer and the beneficiary are in social contact. Etymology The word "crony" first appeared in 18th century London, according to the Oxford English Dictionary to be derived from the Greek word chronios (χρόνιος), meaning "long-term". Concept It is not unusual for a politician to surround him- or herself with highly qualified subordinates, and to develop social, business, or political friendships leading to the appointment to office of friends, likewise in granting government contracts. In the private sector, cronyism exists in organizations, often termed "the old boys club" or "the golden circle", again the boundary between cronyism and "networking" is difficult to delineate. Some instances of cronyism are readily transparent.
Cold creamCold cream is an emulsion of water and certain fats, usually including beeswax and various scent agents, designed to smooth skin and remove makeup. The emulsion is of a "water in oil" type unlike the "oil in water" type emulsion of vanishing cream, so-called because it seems to disappear when applied on skin. The name "cold cream" derives from the cooling feeling that the cream leaves on the skin. Variations of the product have been used for nearly 2000 years. Cold cream is mainly used for skin treatment, due to its moisturizing properties, such as a facial mask, lip balm, etc. History The invention of cold cream is credited to Galen, a physician in second century Greece. In France, this substance is still known as cérat de Galien ('Galen's Wax'). An 1814 poem credited to "Dr. Galen's cold cream was based on beeswax and water, also containing olive oil and rose petals for softness and scent, respectively. Modern formulation References