Computer networks differ in the physical media used to transmit their signals, the communications protocols to organize network traffic, the network's size, topology and organizational intent. In most cases, communications protocols are layered on (i.e. work using) other more specific or more general communications protocols, except for the physical layer that directly deals with the physical media. Computer networks support applications such as access to the World Wide Web, shared use of application and storage servers, printers, and fax machines, and use of email and instant messaging applications. History A computer network, or simply a network, is a collection of computers and other hardware components interconnected by communication channels that allow sharing of resources and information. The following is a chronology of significant computer network developments: Properties Network packet Main article: Network packet Network topology Network links
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Critical Mass and Your Social Media Strategy Part ITipping the Scale If ever I needed a reminder about what really matters to advertisers, I got it earlier this month at the tech-media-gadget-advertising-palooza otherwise known as CES in Las Vegas. Simply put, in the 30+ meetings Microsoft Advertising held with... Microsoft, Warner Bros. Today is a definite first for me, and for Microsoft Advertising, as we launch the new campaign for The Hobbit: Desolation of Smaug on Windows 8 Ads-in-Apps, followed by a cross-platform solution on MSN and Xbox 360 on 13 December. Microsoft and AOL Partner to Bring Video to MSN and Bing Apps Today, in partnership with our friends at AOL, I’m happy to announce a content distribution agreement that will bring some of the best video content available from AOL to Microsoft’s video platforms, including MSN, with an audience of nearly 450... Teachers for Tomorrow: Recruiting Generation Next Our Fight Against Fraud Advertising fraud is a complex and constantly changing problem for our industry.
OSI modelThe Open Systems Interconnection model (OSI Model) is a conceptual model that characterizes and standardizes the communication functions of a telecommunication or computing system without regard of their underlying internal structure and technology. Its goal is the interoperability of diverse communication systems with standard protocols. The model partitions a communication system into abstraction layers. The original version of the model defined seven layers. A layer serves the layer above it and is served by the layer below it. The model is a product of the Open Systems Interconnection project at the International Organization for Standardization (ISO), maintained by the identification ISO/IEC 7498-1. Communication in the OSI-Model (example with layers 3 to 5) History In the late 1970s, two projects began independently, with the same goal: to define a unifying standard for the architecture of networking systems. Description of OSI layers Layer 1: Physical Layer
A Brief History of BloggingBlogs have become an integral part of online culture. Practically everyone reads blogs now, whether they’re “official” news blogs associated with traditional news media, topic-based blogs related to one’s work or hobbies, or blogs purely for entertainment, just about anyone you ask has at least one favorite blog. But it wasn’t always so. Blogs have a relatively short history, even when compared with the history of the Internet itself. And it’s only in the past five to ten years that they’ve really taken off and become an important part of the online landscape. The Early Years It’s generally recognized that the first blog was Links.net, created by Justin Hall, while he was a Swarthmore College student in 1994. It wasn’t until 1997 that the term “weblog” was coined. 1998 marks the first known instance of a blog on a traditional news site, when Jonathan Dube blogged Hurricane Bonnie for The Charlotte Observer. “Weblog” was shortened to “blog” in 1999 by programmer Peter Merholz.
Industrial EthernetIndustrial Ethernet (IE) refers to the use of standard Ethernet protocols with rugged connectors and extended temperature switches in an industrial environment, for automation or process control. Components used in plant process areas must be designed to work in harsh environments of temperature extremes, humidity, and vibration that exceed the ranges for information technology equipment intended for installation in controlled environments. The use of fiber Ethernet reduces the problems of electrical noise and provides electrical isolation to prevent equipment damage. Some industrial networks emphasized deterministic delivery of transmitted data, whereas Ethernet used collision detection which made transport time for individual data packets difficult to estimate with increasing network traffic. Application environment Industrial networks often use network switches to segment a large system into logical sub-networks, divided by address, protocol, or application. See also
21 Free Social Media Tracking tools | Chris RawlinsonHappy New Year and hope you all had a fabulous Christmas. Have been off on holiday for a few weeks so apologise for the lack of regular posts. 2010 looks set to be an exiting one in the digital marketing realm, budgets are on the up and are predicted to rise by over 12% in the Digital sector alone. To help get things off to a good start for the year I thought I would share with you 21 great social media tracking tools available to use for free. The list comes from friends at McCann, London. Some of them are more helpful than others, and even if you’re not interested in tracking campaigns and brands great fun can still be had from sites like (Try typing in Hitler!). Wishing you all a wonderful 2010 and thanks for helping to make this site the success it is. Chris 1.
Computers Systems10 Steps for Successful Social Media MonitoringMaria Ogneva is the Director of Social Media at Attensity, a social media engagement and voice-of-customer platform that helps the social enterprise serve and collaborate with the social customer. You can follow her on Twitter at @themaria or @attensity360, or find her musings on her personal blog and her company's blog. Recently I wrote about the differences in social media monitoring and measurement, as well as the importance of doing both. However, taking the first step to actually start monitoring can be daunting. How do you engage? I've developed these throughout my career and as part of my regular listening, participating and contributing to the space. 1. Why are you monitoring? Having an end goal in mind will help you target your resources correctly, select the right tool for the job and be more effective in the end. 2. Social media is relationship and conversation media. 3. Recall that monitoring is keyword-based, and thus selection of the right keywords is important. 4. 5. 6. 7.