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As We May Think - Vannevar Bush

As We May Think - Vannevar Bush
As Director of the Office of Scientific Research and Development, Dr. Vannevar Bush has coordinated the activities of some six thousand leading American scientists in the application of science to warfare. In this significant article he holds up an incentive for scientists when the fighting has ceased. He urges that men of science should then turn to the massive task of making more accessible our bewildering store of knowledge. For years inventions have extended man's physical powers rather than the powers of his mind. Trip hammers that multiply the fists, microscopes that sharpen the eye, and engines of destruction and detection are new results, but not the end results, of modern science. This has not been a scientist's war; it has been a war in which all have had a part. For the biologists, and particularly for the medical scientists, there can be little indecision, for their war has hardly required them to leave the old paths. There is a growing mountain of research.

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History of the Hyperlink Today we talked about many different kinds of interactive experiences—both digital and non-digital. In discussing the digital realm, we identified environmental, non-linear navigation, avatar-based games and community/collaborative interactive types. Probably the most pervasive source of interactive experiences today is the Internet. And at the heart of those experiences is the hyperlink (in the form of hypertext and hypermedia).

To Know, but Not Understand: David Weinberger on Science and Big Data - David Weinberger In an edited excerpt from his new book, Too Big to Know, David Weinberger explains how the massive amounts of data necessary to deal with complex phenomena exceed any single brain's ability to grasp, yet networked science rolls on. Thomas Jefferson and George Washington recorded daily weather observations, but they didn't record them hourly or by the minute. Not only did they have other things to do, such data didn't seem useful. Even after the invention of the telegraph enabled the centralization of weather data, the 150 volunteers who received weather instruments from the Smithsonian Institution in 1849 still reported only once a day. Now there is a literally immeasurable, continuous stream of climate data from satellites circling the earth, buoys bobbing in the ocean, and Wi-Fi-enabled sensors in the rain forest.

CMC Magazine: Cyberspace Couples Finding Romance Online Then Meeting for the First Time in Real Life by Andrea Baker Introduction to Purpose and Methodology This study is an attempt to start mapping the features and processes of online relationships leading to intimate relationships. The eighteen couples who provide the data here all met first online and then offline between 1993 and 1997. They met by corresponding in writing and developed their acquaintance into friendship, dating partners and then, for some cohabitation or marriage.

How Your Travels Around the Internet Expose the Way You Think My journey begins with a magazine article on the origins of human writing. But then I bounce to a webcomic about a girl superhero, which leads me to obsess briefly over how the hell Superman could really fly. That links me to the equations that describe gravity, which loops me around to Jews in the history of Marvel Comics. This is a map of me dorking around on the Internet. But it also reveals something important that would otherwise be invisible. It shows how I think. Carol Kuhlthau In the first stage, initiation, a person becomes aware of a gap in knowledge or a lack of understanding, where feelings of uncertainty and apprehension are common. At this point,the task is merely to recognize a need for information. Thoughts center on contemplating the problem, comprehending the task, and relating the problem to prior experience and personal knowledge. Actions frequently involve discussing possible avenues of approach or topics to pursue.

Vannevar Bush Vannevar Bush (1890-1974) is the pivotal figure in hypertext research. His conception of the Memex introduced, for the first time, the idea of an easily accessible, individually configurable storehouse of knowledge. Douglas Engelbart and Ted Nelson were directly inspired by his work, and, in particular, his ground-breaking article, "As We May Think." Bush did his undergraduate work at Tufts College, where he later taught. His master's thesis (1913) included the invention of the Profile Tracer, used in surveying work to measure distances over uneven ground.

Science publishing: The paper is not sacred Two months after we started a blog that tracks scientific retractions — Retraction Watch — in 2010, one of us (A.M.) told The New York Times that we weren't sure we would have enough material to post with any regularity. That concern turned out to be unfounded — in just 16 months, we have written about some 250 retractions. Little did we know that, in scientific publishing, 2011 would become the Year of the Retraction. Here's what grabbed everyone's attention: retractions have increased 15-fold over the past decade, while the number of papers has risen by less than 50% (see Nature 478, 26–28; 2011).

THE HI-TECH GIFT ECONOMY by Richard Barbrook Author: Richard Barbrook Abstract During the Sixties, the New Left created a new form of radical politics: anarcho-communism. Above all, the Situationists and similar groups believed that the tribal gift economy proved that individuals could successfully live together without needing either the state or the market. The Death of the Author [1967] – Roland Barthes In his story Sarrasine, Balzac, speaking of a castrato disguised as a woman, writes this sentence: “It was Woman, with her sudden fears, her irrational whims, her instinctive fears, her unprovoked bravado, her daring and her delicious delicacy of feeling” Who is speaking in this way? Is it the story’s hero, concerned to ignore the castrato concealed beneath the woman? Is it the man Balzac, endowed by his personal experience with a philosophy of Woman?

Kuhlthau by Carol Collier Kuhlthau Carol Collier Kuhlthau is with the School of Communication, Information and Library Studies at Rutgers, The State University of New Jersey, in New Brunswick. She can be reached by phone at 732/932-7916; by fax at 732/932-6916; or by e-mail at The model of the information search process (ISP) described here was developed in a series of studies of the experience and behavior of library users involved in extensive research projects and more recently people in the workplace using information for complex work-related tasks. This research, discussed in numerous publications, presentations and seminars, has had considerable impact on library services but relatively little impact on information retrieval (IR) system design.

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