Applying algorithm to social networks can reveal hidden connections criminals use to commit fraud Fraudsters beware: the more your social networks connect you and your accomplices to the crime, the easier it will be to shake you from the tree. The Steiner tree, that is. In an article recently published in the journal Computer Fraud and Security, University of Alberta researcher Ray Patterson and colleagues from the University of Connecticut and University of California – Merced outlined the connection linking fraud cases and the algorithm designed by Swiss mathematician Jakob Steiner. The criminal path of least resistance To quote a television gumshoe, everything's connected. "You're really trying to find the minimum set of connectors that connect these people to the various [network] resources," he said. Fraud and the Steiner tree, by the numbers In their article, Patterson and his colleagues explored how networks such as phone calls, business partnerships and family relationships are used to form essential relationships in a fraud investigation.
Stigmergy Stigmergy is a mechanism of indirect coordination between agents or actions. The principle is that the trace left in the environment by an action stimulates the performance of a next action, by the same or a different agent. In that way, subsequent actions tend to reinforce and build on each other, leading to the spontaneous emergence of coherent, apparently systematic activity. Stigmergy is a form of self-organization. History The term "stigmergy" was introduced by French biologist Pierre-Paul Grassé in 1959 to refer to termite behavior. Later on, a distinction was made between the stigmergic phenomenon, which is specific to the guidance of additional work, and the more general, non-work specific incitation, for which the term sematectonic communication was coined by E. Stigmergy is now one of the key concepts in the field of swarm intelligence. Stigmergic behavior in lower organisms Stigmergy was first observed in social insects. Applications See also
Computational social science: Making the links Jon Kleinberg's early work was not for the mathematically faint of heart. His first publication1, in 1992, was a computer-science paper with contents as dense as its title: 'On dynamic Voronoi diagrams and the minimum Hausdorff distance for point sets under Euclidean motion in the plane'. That was before the World-Wide Web exploded across the planet, driven by millions of individual users making independent decisions about who and what to link to. And it was before Kleinberg began to study the vast array of digital by-products generated by life in the modern world, from e-mails, mobile phone calls and credit-card purchases to Internet searches and social networks. “I realized that computer science is not just about technology,” he explains. Kleinberg is not alone. “It's been really transformative,” says Michael Macy, a social scientist at Cornell and one of 15 co-authors of a 2009 manifesto4 seeking to raise the profile of the new discipline. Social calls Infectious ideas Message received
Ragman Roll What was the Ragman Roll? The Ragman Roll refers to one of two collections of documents which listed the names of the Scots men and women who promised fealty to Edward I of England; the first (and smaller) of which was compiled between the meeting between Edward I and the Scottish nobility at Norham in May 1291 and the final award of the throne of Scotland to John Balliol in November 1292 the second and larger of which was compiled in the summer of 1296 whilst Edward I toured Scotland prior to the parliament held at Berwick-upon-Tweed in the August if that year The term is more often than not used exclusively to referred to the second of the two. This consisted of four great rolls of parchment on which the great and the good of Scotland recorded their submission to Edward I and vowed to be faithful to the king of England. Although the original document has not survived a copy was preserved and is now kept at the Public Record Office in London. Why was it called the Ragman Roll?
Collective Intelligence in Social Insects It wasn't so long ago that the waggledance of the honey bee, the nest-building of the social wasp, and the construction of the termite mound were considered a somewhat magical aspect of nature. How could these seemingly uncommunicative, certainly very simple creatures be responsible for such epic feats of organisation and creativity? Over the last fifty years biologists have unravelled many of the mysteries surrounding social insects, and the last decade has seen an explosion of research in fields variously referred to as Collective Intelligence, Swarm Intelligence and emergent behaviour. Even more recently the swarm paradigm has been applied to a broader range of studies, opening up new ways of thinking about theoretical biology, economics and philosophy. In the Beginning Like many geniuses, Marais' life ended in tragedy. Stigmergy: Invisible Writing Although Marais had created a detailed document on termites, he was unaware of the mechanics of termite communication. Self Organisation
Mapping Twitter Topic Networks: From Polarized Crowds to Community Clusters Polarized Crowds: Political conversations on Twitter Conversations on Twitter create networks with identifiable contours as people reply to and mention one another in their tweets. These conversational structures differ, depending on the subject and the people driving the conversation. Six structures are regularly observed: divided, unified, fragmented, clustered, and inward and outward hub and spoke structures. If a topic is political, it is common to see two separate, polarized crowds take shape. While these polarized crowds are common in political conversations on Twitter, it is important to remember that the people who take the time to post and talk about political issues on Twitter are a special group. Still, the structure of these Twitter conversations says something meaningful about political discourse these days and the tendency of politically active citizens to sort themselves into distinct partisan camps. Conversational archetypes on Twitter What this all means Figure 2 Figure 3
Medieval Games in Europe In exploring the games played in Medieval Europe, we'll just find out that the people of those times were no different from us, as they were fond of public amusements and they did their best to make their time pass agreeably. In the early Norman times the favorite sports of the Medieval people were bowling, fencing with sword and buckler, the sword dance, and wrestling. At a later period came the Quintain. The nobles had their own preferred games: tournaments including fencing, and hunting. The emancipation of the serfs began to brighten the horizon of the peasantry. Tennis Game in the Middle Ages Medieval burlesque games The most popular occasions to watch or participate in the competitions were the village feasts. Games of skill and strength This type of games became popular with members of all classes. The Medieval game of the Quintain was a common sport at wedding festivities. Ancestors of the modern games Medieval Football Hockey Cricket Golf Tennis in the Middle Ages Billiards Playing Chess
Pierre-Paul Grassé Pierre-Paul Grassé Pierre-Paul Grassé (November 27, 1895, Périgueux (Dordogne) – July 9, 1985) was a French zoologist, author of over 300 publications including the influential 52-volume Traité de Zoologie. He was an expert on termites. Biography Education Grassé began his studies in Périgueux where his parents owned a small business. Grassé continued his studies in Paris, focusing exclusively on science. In 1926, Grassé became vice-director of the École supérieure de sériciculture. Teaching and research In 1929, Grassé became professor of zoology at the Université de Clermont-Ferrand. In 1935, he became an Assistant Professor at the Université de Paris where he worked alongside Germaine Cousin (1896–1992), and received the Prix Gadeau de Kerville de la Société entomologique de France for his work on orthoptera and termites. Publications He also composed the Termitologia (1982, 1983, 1984), a work in three volumes totalling over 2400 pages. Annex Works
Facebook feelings are contagious: Study examines how emotions spread online You can’t catch a cold from a friend online. But can you catch a mood? It would seem so, according to new research from the University of California, San Diego. Published in PLOS ONE, the study analyzes over a billion anonymized status updates among more than 100 million users of Facebook in the United States. “Our study suggests that people are not just choosing other people like themselves to associate with but actually causing their friends’ emotional expressions to change,” said lead author James Fowler, professor of political science in the Division of Social Sciences and of medical genetics in the School of Medicine at UC San Diego. There is abundant scientific literature on how emotion can spread among people – through direct contact, in person – not only among friends but also among strangers or near-strangers. Fowler worked on the study with Lorenzo Coviello – a PhD student in the electrical and computer engineering department of the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering.
Ludic interface Student experiment in Interface Design developed at UP Valencia In Human-computer interaction, ludic Interfaces is the name for a discipline and for a type of user interfaces. Ludic interfaces are playful interfaces. Core concept At its core, "ludic interfaces" is a subcategory of interfaces in general. History Ludic interface design was first defined in 2002 by William Gaver, in "Designing for Homo Ludens", expanded in a later article in 2009. The term was revisited in 2008 by ISEA curators Gunalan Nadarajan and Vladimir Todorović to describe a panel section of ISEA2008 in Singapore. The term was introduced with the aim of counterbalancing the tendency of "infantilization of play" and stressing the "complicities between technology and pleasure". The notion of "ludic interfaces" has also historical roots in artistic practice and analysis of interfaces (cf. Examples Ludic interface by Mathias Fuchs, using Djing tools in combination with a game engine: "postvinyl"
Emergence in stigmergic and complex adaptive systems: A formal discrete event systems perspective Volume 21, March 2013, Pages 22–39 Stigmergy in the Human Domain Edited By Margery J. Doyle and Leslie Marsh Abstract Complex systems have been studied by researchers from every discipline: biology, chemistry, physics, sociology, mathematics and economics and more. Keywords Stigmergy; Complex adaptive systems; Emergence; Self-organization; DEVS; Dynamic structure; Scale-free networks; Artificial systems Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V.
Measuring Large-Scale Social Networks with High Resolution This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years—the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1 000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. Figures Editor: Yamir Moreno, University of Zaragoza, Spain Copyright: © 2014 Stopczynski et al.
Can games create an education fit for the future? Imagine a school where playing video games is encouraged during classes and may even replace exams. A new educational programme uses SimCity to test children on vital problem-solving skills. Video games usually get in the way of homework. GlassLab, however, is a collaboration between educators and technologists. Uniting commercial game studios and educational groups the aim is to embrace gaming technology to transform the learning process and make it more relevant to the demands of the 21st Century. They could even one day replace traditional exams. SimCityEDU: Pollution Challenge, which has just launched, is an educational version of the video game SimCity. BBC Future spoke to Jessica Lindl, general manager of GlassLab, at the Silicon Valley-based gaming company, EA (Electronic Arts) about how games could prepare children for jobs
A mind-boggling sculpture that crawls with a mind of Its own Someday, not too long from now, you could be walking through a park and pass by a metal structure that looks a lot like a modernist jungle gym. But it's not a playground, at least, not really. Rather, this geometric form is a moving piece of architecture that responds to both you and its surroundings like a stray animal might. The Malta-based architect's current project is a look into how we can create playful, responsive architecture that does more than just sit in a fixed position. Bondin took those principles and applied them to his mobile architectural form, which crawls along very very slowly, flipping one tetrahedral nucleus over the next to change positions. So what do these reactive architectural structures actually react to? The idea is that by the end of 2015, these interactive structures will be a part of certain public landscapes like parks. Though, for what it's worth, Bondin's ambitions for Morphs are actually pretty modest. This story originally appeared on Wired.com