Applying algorithm to social networks can reveal hidden connections criminals use to commit fraud Fraudsters beware: the more your social networks connect you and your accomplices to the crime, the easier it will be to shake you from the tree. The Steiner tree, that is. In an article recently published in the journal Computer Fraud and Security, University of Alberta researcher Ray Patterson and colleagues from the University of Connecticut and University of California – Merced outlined the connection linking fraud cases and the algorithm designed by Swiss mathematician Jakob Steiner. The criminal path of least resistance To quote a television gumshoe, everything's connected. "You're really trying to find the minimum set of connectors that connect these people to the various [network] resources," he said. Fraud and the Steiner tree, by the numbers In their article, Patterson and his colleagues explored how networks such as phone calls, business partnerships and family relationships are used to form essential relationships in a fraud investigation.
Computational social science: Making the links Jon Kleinberg's early work was not for the mathematically faint of heart. His first publication1, in 1992, was a computer-science paper with contents as dense as its title: 'On dynamic Voronoi diagrams and the minimum Hausdorff distance for point sets under Euclidean motion in the plane'. That was before the World-Wide Web exploded across the planet, driven by millions of individual users making independent decisions about who and what to link to. And it was before Kleinberg began to study the vast array of digital by-products generated by life in the modern world, from e-mails, mobile phone calls and credit-card purchases to Internet searches and social networks. “I realized that computer science is not just about technology,” he explains. Kleinberg is not alone. “It's been really transformative,” says Michael Macy, a social scientist at Cornell and one of 15 co-authors of a 2009 manifesto4 seeking to raise the profile of the new discipline. Social calls Infectious ideas Message received
Ragman Roll What was the Ragman Roll? The Ragman Roll refers to one of two collections of documents which listed the names of the Scots men and women who promised fealty to Edward I of England; the first (and smaller) of which was compiled between the meeting between Edward I and the Scottish nobility at Norham in May 1291 and the final award of the throne of Scotland to John Balliol in November 1292 the second and larger of which was compiled in the summer of 1296 whilst Edward I toured Scotland prior to the parliament held at Berwick-upon-Tweed in the August if that year The term is more often than not used exclusively to referred to the second of the two. This consisted of four great rolls of parchment on which the great and the good of Scotland recorded their submission to Edward I and vowed to be faithful to the king of England. Although the original document has not survived a copy was preserved and is now kept at the Public Record Office in London. Why was it called the Ragman Roll?
Mapping Twitter Topic Networks: From Polarized Crowds to Community Clusters Polarized Crowds: Political conversations on Twitter Conversations on Twitter create networks with identifiable contours as people reply to and mention one another in their tweets. These conversational structures differ, depending on the subject and the people driving the conversation. Six structures are regularly observed: divided, unified, fragmented, clustered, and inward and outward hub and spoke structures. If a topic is political, it is common to see two separate, polarized crowds take shape. While these polarized crowds are common in political conversations on Twitter, it is important to remember that the people who take the time to post and talk about political issues on Twitter are a special group. Still, the structure of these Twitter conversations says something meaningful about political discourse these days and the tendency of politically active citizens to sort themselves into distinct partisan camps. Conversational archetypes on Twitter What this all means Figure 2 Figure 3
Medieval Games in Europe In exploring the games played in Medieval Europe, we'll just find out that the people of those times were no different from us, as they were fond of public amusements and they did their best to make their time pass agreeably. In the early Norman times the favorite sports of the Medieval people were bowling, fencing with sword and buckler, the sword dance, and wrestling. At a later period came the Quintain. The nobles had their own preferred games: tournaments including fencing, and hunting. The emancipation of the serfs began to brighten the horizon of the peasantry. Tennis Game in the Middle Ages Medieval burlesque games The most popular occasions to watch or participate in the competitions were the village feasts. Games of skill and strength This type of games became popular with members of all classes. The Medieval game of the Quintain was a common sport at wedding festivities. Ancestors of the modern games Medieval Football Hockey Cricket Golf Tennis in the Middle Ages Billiards Playing Chess
Facebook feelings are contagious: Study examines how emotions spread online You can’t catch a cold from a friend online. But can you catch a mood? It would seem so, according to new research from the University of California, San Diego. Published in PLOS ONE, the study analyzes over a billion anonymized status updates among more than 100 million users of Facebook in the United States. “Our study suggests that people are not just choosing other people like themselves to associate with but actually causing their friends’ emotional expressions to change,” said lead author James Fowler, professor of political science in the Division of Social Sciences and of medical genetics in the School of Medicine at UC San Diego. There is abundant scientific literature on how emotion can spread among people – through direct contact, in person – not only among friends but also among strangers or near-strangers. Fowler worked on the study with Lorenzo Coviello – a PhD student in the electrical and computer engineering department of the UC San Diego Jacobs School of Engineering.
Ludic interface Student experiment in Interface Design developed at UP Valencia In Human-computer interaction, ludic Interfaces is the name for a discipline and for a type of user interfaces. Ludic interfaces are playful interfaces. Core concept At its core, "ludic interfaces" is a subcategory of interfaces in general. History Ludic interface design was first defined in 2002 by William Gaver, in "Designing for Homo Ludens", expanded in a later article in 2009. The term was revisited in 2008 by ISEA curators Gunalan Nadarajan and Vladimir Todorović to describe a panel section of ISEA2008 in Singapore. The term was introduced with the aim of counterbalancing the tendency of "infantilization of play" and stressing the "complicities between technology and pleasure". The notion of "ludic interfaces" has also historical roots in artistic practice and analysis of interfaces (cf. Examples Ludic interface by Mathias Fuchs, using Djing tools in combination with a game engine: "postvinyl"
Measuring Large-Scale Social Networks with High Resolution This paper describes the deployment of a large-scale study designed to measure human interactions across a variety of communication channels, with high temporal resolution and spanning multiple years—the Copenhagen Networks Study. Specifically, we collect data on face-to-face interactions, telecommunication, social networks, location, and background information (personality, demographics, health, politics) for a densely connected population of 1 000 individuals, using state-of-the-art smartphones as social sensors. Here we provide an overview of the related work and describe the motivation and research agenda driving the study. Additionally, the paper details the data-types measured, and the technical infrastructure in terms of both backend and phone software, as well as an outline of the deployment procedures. We document the participant privacy procedures and their underlying principles. Figures Editor: Yamir Moreno, University of Zaragoza, Spain Copyright: © 2014 Stopczynski et al.
Can games create an education fit for the future? Imagine a school where playing video games is encouraged during classes and may even replace exams. A new educational programme uses SimCity to test children on vital problem-solving skills. Video games usually get in the way of homework. GlassLab, however, is a collaboration between educators and technologists. Uniting commercial game studios and educational groups the aim is to embrace gaming technology to transform the learning process and make it more relevant to the demands of the 21st Century. They could even one day replace traditional exams. SimCityEDU: Pollution Challenge, which has just launched, is an educational version of the video game SimCity. BBC Future spoke to Jessica Lindl, general manager of GlassLab, at the Silicon Valley-based gaming company, EA (Electronic Arts) about how games could prepare children for jobs
The Emerging Science of Superspreaders (And How to Tell If You're One Of Them) Who are the most influential spreaders of information on a network? That’s a question that marketers, bloggers, news services and even governments would like answered. Not least because the answer could provide ways to promote products quickly, to boost the popularity of political parties above their rivals and to seed the rapid spread of news and opinions. So it’s not surprising that network theorists have spent some time thinking about how best to identify these people and to check how the information they receive might spread around a network. Indeed, they’ve found a number of measures that spot so-called superspreaders, people who spread information, ideas or even disease more efficiently than anybody else. But there’s a problem. But there is growing evidence that information does not spread through real networks in the same way as it does through these idealised ones. So the question of how to find the superspreaders remains open.
Neuroeconomics Neuroeconomics is an interdisciplinary field that seeks to explain human decision making, the ability to process multiple alternatives and to choose an optimal course of action. It studies how economic behavior can shape our understanding of the brain, and how neuroscientific discoveries can constrain and guide models of economics. Behavioral economics emerged to account for these anomalies by integrating social, cognitive, and emotional factors in understanding economic decisions. Neuroeconomics adds another layer by using neuroscientific methods in understanding the interplay between economic behavior and neural mechanisms. By using tools from various fields, some scholars claim that neuroeconomics offers a more integrative way of understanding decision making. Introduction The field of decision making is largely concerned with the processes by which individuals make a single choice from among many options. The field of neuroeconomics arose out of this controversy.
Social Network Analysis Brief Description: "Social network analysis is the mapping and measuring of relationships and flows between people, groups, organisations, computers or other information/knowledge processing entities." (Valdis Krebs, 2002). History: When to use: Visualize relationships within and outside of the organization.Facilitate identification of who knows who and who might know what - teams and individuals playing central roles - thought leaders, key knowledge brokers, experts, etc.Identify isolated teams or individuals and knowledge bottlenecks.Strategically work to improve knowledge flows.Accelerate the flow of knowledge and information across functional and organisational boundaries.Improve the effectiveness of formal and informal communication channels.Raise awareness of the importance of informal networks. How to use: Informal Face to Face Network Mapping Tools and Software for SNA Highly recommend. Training on SNA Tips and Lessons Learnt Examples & Stories Tags
The Evolution of Cooperation The evolution of cooperation can refer to: the study of how cooperation can emerge and persist (also known as cooperation theory) as elucidated by application of game theory,a 1981 paper by political scientist Robert Axelrod and evolutionary biologist W. D. Hamilton (Axelrod & Hamilton 1981) in the scientific literature, ora 1984 book by Axelrod (Axelrod 1984) that expanded on the paper and popularized the study. This article is an introduction to how game theory and computer modeling are illuminating certain aspects of moral and political philosophy, particularly the role of individuals in groups, the "biology of selfishness and altruism", and how cooperation can be evolutionarily advantageous. Operations research The idea that human behavior can be usefully analyzed mathematically gained great credibility following the application of operations research in World War II to improve military operations. Game theory Prisoner's dilemma So what do you do?
Public goods game The public goods game is a standard of experimental economics. In the basic game, subjects secretly choose how many of their private tokens to put into a public pot. The tokens in this pot are multiplied by a factor (greater than one and less than the number of players, N) and this "public good" payoff is evenly divided among players. Results The group's total payoff is maximized when everyone contributes all of their tokens to the public pool. Depending on the experiment's design, those who contribute below average or nothing are called "defectors" or "free riders", as opposed to the contributors or above average contributors who are called "cooperators". Variants Iterated public goods games One explanation for the dropping level of contribution is inequity aversion. Open public goods games (Transparency) Public goods games with punishment and/or reward Many studies therefore emphasize the combination of (the threat of) punishment and rewards. Framing