Clues to Lost Prehistoric Code Discovered in Mesopotamia The tokens, in this instance, had air bubbles around them, suggesting they were wrapped in cloth before being put in the ball, the cloth disintegrating over time. In addition, it appears that a liquid, likely liquid bitumen, was poured over the tokens after they were inserted into the balls. What someone was trying to communicate by creating such tokens is unknown. "That's a mystery," Woods told LiveScience in an interview. "I don't really have a good answer for that," he said, adding that the bitumen tokens may represent a divergent accounting practice, or, perhaps even, that the transaction recorded involved bitumen.
The State Hermitage Museum: Collection Highlights This rich and fascinating collection from the Altai mountains dates to the Scythian-Sakae period (6th–4th centuries BC) and embraces over 5,000 items. At its heart lie the unique articles found during excavation of the burial mounds of Pazyryk in the Eastern part of the High Altai, at a height of 1,600 metres above sea level. Large Altaic burial mounds were intended for those who occupied high positions in early nomadic society, such as chiefs, elders and priests. According to custom, the chief's wife or concubine was also buried with him and all the dead bodies were embalmed.
Growing in a Foreign World: For a History of the "Meluha Villages" in Mesopotamia in the 3rd Millenium BC Above: Impression of an Indus-style cylinder seal of unknown Near Eastern origin in the Musee du Louvre, Paris. One of the two anthropomorphic figures carved on this seal wears the horns of water buffalo while sitting on a throne with hoofed legs, surrounded by snakes, fishes and water buffaloes. Copyrighted photo by M. Chuzeville for the Departement des antiquites orientales, Musee du Louvre. A fascinating article that gathers together all known facts about Indus settlements and trading with ancient Mesopotamia during around 2500 BCE and conjectures and implications of the facts we do know by an Italian archaeologist who is a pioneer in this kind of deep multidisciplinary analysis. The connections between these ancient Bronze age civilizations could one day help answer a lot of questions.
Australian Indigenous Astronomy: The Coal Sack and the "Emu in the..." er, I mean... the "Llama in the Sky"?! By Duane Hamacher Figure 1: The Pointers, Coal Sack, and Southern Cross. Image by Duane Hamacher, using the Starry Night software package. Aboriginal Australians have diverse views of the Coal Sack (Figure 2). Given the dark, cave-like appearance of this nebula, some Aboriginal groups identify it as the lair of evil beings.
Pazyryk burials Coordinates: Horseman, Pazyryk felt artifact, c.300 BC. For another felt artifact, see here. The Pazyryk (Russian: Пазырык) burials are a number of Iron Age tombs found in the Pazyryk Valley of the Ukok plateau in the Altai Mountains, Siberia, south of the modern city of Novosibirsk, Russia; the site is close to the borders with China, Kazakhstan and Mongolia. Numerous comparable burials have been found in neighboring western Mongolia. Australian Original Astronomical Rock Engravings Will Re-Write World History 9th April 2013 By Steven Strong Contributing Writer for Wake Up World Original Australian archaeology serving astronomical purposes found in the Central Coast of NSW (Australia) is both so numerous in number (>2000 star markers) and diverse in applications (star markers, constellation alignments, solstices, plasma events and possibility of binary star system and polar shifts) and the implications of this call into question many mistaken assumptions of Original prehistory. We propose that this complex is a unique star map of global significance exhibiting sophistication previously unknown. Australian Original Astronomical Rock Engravings Will Re-Write World History
Pazyryk culture The Pazyryk culture is an Iron Age archaeological culture (c. 6th to 3rd centuries BC) identified by excavated artifacts and mummified humans found in the Siberian permafrost in the Altay Mountains and nearby Mongolia. The mummies are buried in long barrows (or kurgans) similar to the tomb mounds of western Scythian culture in modern Ukraine. The type site are the Pazyryk burials of the Ukok Plateau.(NOVA 2007) Many artifacts and human remains have been found at this location, including the Siberian Ice Princess, indicating a flourishing culture at this location that benefited from the many trade routes and caravans of merchants passing through the area.
Ancient Shiva Temple at Ambernath The Shiva temple at Ambarnath is one of its kind in this region. This temple is a fine example of the Vesara style that was predominant in the central parts of India. Vesara style is essentially a tasteful blend of two schools of architecture, the Dravidian style and the Nagara style, in simple words, a mix of the north Indian and south Indian styles of temple making. There were many regional versions of Vesara styles.
Göbekli Tepe, Turkey: a new wonder of the ancient world Two years ago a bare trickle of visitors found their way to this remote hilltop revelation. Now, however, visitors are building their entire itineraries around Göbekli Tepe, surest of shoo-ins for future World Heritage Status, and foundations are already in place for a protective site canopy, a nearby visitors’ centre and a ticket office. Numbers are set to explode here, the more so because the surrounding Euphrates region centred on the ancient cities of Gaziantep and Sanliurfa happens to boast an exceptional wealth of cultural draws. Pazyryk Tattoo Meaning Although the tattooed Scythians of 2,500 years ago may seem impossibly distant from most tattooed westerners in terms of geography, culture, and time, their bold tattoo symbols still hold some sway among modern devotees. Seemingly inscrutable and yet tantalizing familiar, their images draw our curiosity back to a time and place that may help us to interpret them. The Ukok Plateau of the Golden Mountains of Altai, UNESCO World Heritage Site. It was amid the high plateaus of the modern day steppes of Siberian Russia, near the border with China and Kazakstan, that the Pazyryk people once roamed and flourished.
Faravahar, Zoroastrianism and the winged disk. Faravahar is one of the best-known symbols of Zoroastrianism, the state religion of ancient Iran. This symbol can be interpreted exactly as what you see in it: A person who flies a kind of a round aircraft. Although some will argue that the winged disk is the sun and represents sun worshiping, it’s hard to believe that this is the case. When examining the origins of the Zoroastrian religion a few facts jump’s out - The Indo-Australian connection thickens The arrival of the European Christians in Australia was a catastrophic event for the aboriginal peoples of that island. They never recovered from that encounter and today eke out a shambolic and reduced existence, almost as though the karma-phala of their exterminating the megafauna of the island had caught up with them. Human genomics is now revealing their remarkable genetic heritage. Recent studies have shown that they and their cousins from the highlands of New Guinea are actually the result of the admixture of at least 3 distinct populations. The first being an ancient wave of out of Africa immigrants moving east in the direction of Sahul (the combined continent of New Guinea and Australia). Even before this population reached Sahul it mixed with the non-Homo sapiens population of Denisovans (who are closer to the Neanderthals) somewhere in the South East Asia (probably Philippines) and then proceeded further east.
AIN GHAZAL Considered among the most important pre-pottery Neolithic sites in the whole of the ancient Near East, the 9,000-year-old farming settlement of ‘Ain Ghazal (Spring of the Gazelles) first came to light during road construction on the outskirts of Amman in 1974. In the decade that followed, numerous finds were recovered from the 30-acre site, the most extraordinary of which were a suite of large, lime-plaster statues and funerary masks found in two caches beneath the floor of an abandoned building. Some 30 in all, the statues had faces tinted with red ochre and eyes inlaid with bitumen; the funerary masks had been modeled on human skulls. Today, the site, which straddles a seasonal river, suffers from erosion. However, its most pressing threat has been damage wrought by urban development.
A Passage To India - Location-Notes, Photos, and Maps of the Barabar Caves near Gaya, Bihar The road to Nagarjuna Hill got bumpier and bumpier - at times I thought that the Ambassador motor car could not cope with such punishment, and that it would be better if we walk. The driver, though, was quite confident in his abilities and those of the car so we continued on, driving slowly over the large rocks that defied the name of 'road' in any more normal circumstances. Bumpy track to the Barabar Caves There are three caves situated on and around Nagarjuna Hill: the Vadathi-ka-Kubha, the Vapiya-ka-Kubha, and the Gopi-ka-Kubha. I was very pleased to have the chance to visit all three of them on this visit, and I hoped that they would provide new clues to the story of 'A Passage To India' that Forster tells.