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The human microbiome: Me, myself, us

The human microbiome: Me, myself, us
WHAT’S a man? Or, indeed, a woman? Biologically, the answer might seem obvious. A human being is an individual who has grown from a fertilised egg which contained genes from both father and mother. A growing band of biologists, however, think this definition incomplete. They see people not just as individuals, but also as ecosystems. A healthy adult human harbours some 100 trillion bacteria in his gut alone. And it really is a system, for evolution has aligned the interests of host and bugs. That bacteria can cause disease is no revelation. A bug’s life One way to think of the microbiome is as an additional human organ, albeit a rather peculiar one. The microbiome, too, is organised. Specialised; but not monotonous. That detail is significant. This early nutritional role, moreover, is magnified throughout life. The fat of the land This role in nutrition points to one way in which an off-kilter microbiome can affect its host: what feeds a body can also overfeed or underfeed it.

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Think Complexity by Allen B. Downey Buy this book from Amazon.com. Download this book in PDF. Read this book online. Description Microbiome: Your Body Houses 10x More Bacteria Than Cells What happens in the gut doesn’t stay in the gut – it sometimes affects the brain. Animal studies have started to show that the microbiome, from its staging ground in the bowel, can influence the development of its host’s brain. Rochellys Diaz Heijtz found that germ-free mice, without any microbiome, were more active, less anxious and less risk-averse than usual. Their brains differed in the activity of over a hundred genes that provide cells with energy, influence chemical communications in the brain and strengthen the connection between nerve cells. Heijtz could even shift her germ-free mice towards “normal” behaviour and genetic activity by giving them a microbiome transplant, but this only worked early in their lives.

All about lectins: Here’s what you need to know What are lectins? Lectins are a type of protein that can bind to cell membranes. They are sugar-binding and become the “glyco” portion of glycoconjugates on the membranes. Lectins offer a way for molecules to stick together without getting the immune system involved, which can influence cell-cell interaction. Lectins are abundant in raw legumes and grains, and most commonly found in the part of the seed that becomes the leaves when the plant sprouts, aka the cotyledon, but also on the seed coat. They’re also found in dairy products and certain vegetables.

crazy and criminal: on those damn books, and why they matter « Sex Geek Plenty of ink has been spilled about E. L. James’s erotic BDSM romance trilogy, Fifty Shades of Grey. I swore I wouldn’t do the same, but then the nice folks at Carleton University asked me to keynote their very cool Consent Is Sexy week on the topic of consent and Fifty Shades, and my book club, the Leather Bindings Society, had just finished reading the trilogy for one of our meetings, so it was fresh in my mind. As well, in the last few months I’ve gotten a ton of requests for my thoughts on the series. So I decided that as a pervy scholar and a critic of sexual culture, I should do my homework and say my piece so that we can then return to your regularly scheduled programming.

Intelligent Complex Adaptive Systems I don’t believe in the existence of a complex systems theory as such and, so far, I’m still referring to complex systems science (CSS) in order to describe my research endeavours. In my view, the latter is constituted, up until now, by a bundle of loosely connected methods and theories aiming to observe— from contrasted standpoints—these fascinating objects of research called complex adaptive systems. Nearly 40 years after Von Bertalanffy’s General System Theory (1968) and Jacques Monod’s Chance and Necessity (1971), it is fair to look back and to try to assess how much remains to be said about these complex adaptive systems.

Divided by language, united by gut bacteria – people have three common gut types - Not Exactly Rocket Science Europe is a divided land. For such a relatively small continent, it is split into 50 different countries and its people speak hundreds of languages. But within their guts, there is common ground. The intestines of Europeans, like those of all humans, harbour massive communities of bacteria. According to a new study, these microscopic worlds fall into just three different groups, which transcend the borders of geography and politics. In gut bacteria, we are united.

Probiotics Dosage Suggestions - Custom Probiotics Start with one capsule (60 Billion cfu’s) first thing in the morning (30 minutes prior to eating) and one capsule at bedtime with a full glass of water. Continue this dosage for three days. After three days raise the dosage to two capsules first thing in the morning and two at bedtime, if need be.

Here's a Mind-Melting, Mailable Skull Sculpture That’s twisted. Beijing artist Li Hongbo creates sculptures that look smooth and porcelain until you stretch them, lengthening in endless layers of soft white paper with almost invisible crevices, like some kind of psychedelic accordion, aaaaah. See busts, faces, skulls stretched and twisted with the mailability of a digital entity. Then see a backbone unfold in connected vertebrae. Li Hongbo is an artist and a book editor/designer by trade, so that’s where the paper kick stems from.

Complex systems made simple Albert-László Barabási and Yang-Yu Liu, together with their collaborator Jean-Jacques Slotine at M.I.T., have developed a method for observing large, complex systems. In the image above, red dots represent sensor nodes, which are required to reconstruct the entire internal state of one such system. Image by Mauro Martino. Just as the name implies, com­plex sys­tems are dif­fi­cult to tease apart. An organism’s genome, a bio­chem­ical reac­tion, or even a social net­work all con­tain many inter­de­pen­dent components—and changing any one of them can have per­va­sive effects on all the others. The Microbiome Everyone’s got a personal collection of microbiota. You could think of yours as your unique internal pet—at up to 3 percent of your body mass, it’s as hefty as a teacup Yorkie or a large guinea pig—requiring care and feeding. In turn, your microbiota provide essential services: extracting energy from food, absorbing and generating vitamins and amino acids and forming barriers against infective invaders. If researchers are correct, your microbiota might also fight diabetes, obesity and cancer; stimulate your immune system; break down toxins; and boost your overall health. So exactly what are microbiota? They are the more than 10,000 species of bacteria, fungi and viruses that inhabit your gut, nose, mouth, throat, skin and urogenital tract.

Details on Probiotics - Custom Probiotics Probiotic bacteria are generally, though not exclusively, lactic acid bacteria and include Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. plantarum, L. salivarius, L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri, Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. longum, B. infantis and S. thermophilus. Probiotic bacteria are used in the production of yogurt, various fermented milk products and dietary supplemegutnts. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are Gram-positive lactic acid-producing bacteria that constitute a major part of the normal intestinal microflora in animals and humans. 1ucasvb's lab 79629813053 305 1394863200 mrfb asked: What are your thoughts on the pi v. tau debate? (For those unaware of the Pi. vs. Tau debate, read the Tau Manifesto and then the Pi Manifesto). I’m actually extremely pro-tau, but only under certain conditions. I’ll explain.

Observability of complex systems Author Affiliations Edited by Giorgio Parisi, University of Rome, Rome, Italy, and approved December 26, 2012 (received for review September 6, 2012) Abstract A quantitative description of a complex system is inherently limited by our ability to estimate the system’s internal state from experimentally accessible outputs. Although the simultaneous measurement of all internal variables, like all metabolite concentrations in a cell, offers a complete description of a system’s state, in practice experimental access is limited to only a subset of variables, or sensors.

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