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The human microbiome: Me, myself, us

The human microbiome: Me, myself, us
WHAT’S a man? Or, indeed, a woman? Biologically, the answer might seem obvious. A human being is an individual who has grown from a fertilised egg which contained genes from both father and mother. A healthy adult human harbours some 100 trillion bacteria in his gut alone. And it really is a system, for evolution has aligned the interests of host and bugs. That bacteria can cause disease is no revelation. A bug’s life One way to think of the microbiome is as an additional human organ, albeit a rather peculiar one. The microbiome, too, is organised. Specialised; but not monotonous. That detail is significant. This early nutritional role, moreover, is magnified throughout life. The fat of the land This role in nutrition points to one way in which an off-kilter microbiome can affect its host: what feeds a body can also overfeed or underfeed it. Experiments on mice suggest this is not just a question of the bacteria responding to altered circumstances. Signal failures A question of culture Related:  Complex SystemsAE Gut Quot

Think Complexity by Allen B. Downey Buy this book from Amazon.com. Download this book in PDF. Read this book online. Description This book is about complexity science, data structures and algorithms, intermediate programming in Python, and the philosophy of science: Data structures and algorithms: A data structure is a collection that contains data elements organized in a way that supports particular operations. This book focuses on discrete models, which include graphs, cellular automata, and agent-based models. Complexity science is an interdisciplinary field---at the intersection of mathematics, computer science and physics---that focuses on these kinds of models. Free books! This book is under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 3.0 Unported License, which means that you are free to copy, distribute, and modify it, as long as you attribute the work and don't use it for commercial purposes. Download the LaTeX source code (with figures and a Makefile) in a zip file.

All about lectins: Here’s what you need to know What are lectins? Lectins are a type of protein that can bind to cell membranes. They are sugar-binding and become the “glyco” portion of glycoconjugates on the membranes. Lectins offer a way for molecules to stick together without getting the immune system involved, which can influence cell-cell interaction. Lectins are abundant in raw legumes and grains, and most commonly found in the part of the seed that becomes the leaves when the plant sprouts, aka the cotyledon, but also on the seed coat. They’re also found in dairy products and certain vegetables. Lectins in plants are a defense against microorganisms, pests, and insects. The diagrams of these legume lectins probably don’t mean much to you, but they look neat. Why are lectins so important? Lectins are thought to play a role in immune function, cell growth, cell death, and body fat regulation. Immune response and toxicity Because we don’t digest lectins, we often produce antibodies to them. Beneficial lectins Lectins and grains

Intelligent Complex Adaptive Systems I don’t believe in the existence of a complex systems theory as such and, so far, I’m still referring to complex systems science (CSS) in order to describe my research endeavours. In my view, the latter is constituted, up until now, by a bundle of loosely connected methods and theories aiming to observe— from contrasted standpoints—these fascinating objects of research called complex adaptive systems. Nearly 40 years after Von Bertalanffy’s General System Theory (1968) and Jacques Monod’s Chance and Necessity (1971), it is fair to look back and to try to assess how much remains to be said about these complex adaptive systems. The universe is a massive system of systems -- for example, ecological systems, social systems, commodity and stock markets.

Probiotics Dosage Suggestions - Custom Probiotics Start with one capsule (60 Billion cfu’s) first thing in the morning (30 minutes prior to eating) and one capsule at bedtime with a full glass of water. Continue this dosage for three days. After three days raise the dosage to two capsules first thing in the morning and two at bedtime, if need be. NOTE: Every digestive system is different and unique like a fingerprint. Start with one adult scoop (0.8 gram, 200 billion cfu’s) of the probiotic powder first thing in the morning on an empty stomach (30 minutes prior to eating). If you are not happy with the results, raise the dosage to two scoops a day, one in the morning and one at bedtime. Start with one baby scoop (0.1 gram, 25 billion cfu’s) of the probiotic powder first thing in the morning on an empty stomach. If your child is not getting the expected results raise the dosage to one scoop in the morning and one scoop at bedtime.

Complex systems made simple Albert-László Barabási and Yang-Yu Liu, together with their collaborator Jean-Jacques Slotine at M.I.T., have developed a method for observing large, complex systems. In the image above, red dots represent sensor nodes, which are required to reconstruct the entire internal state of one such system. Image by Mauro Martino. Just as the name implies, com­plex sys­tems are dif­fi­cult to tease apart. An organism’s genome, a bio­chem­ical reac­tion, or even a social net­work all con­tain many inter­de­pen­dent components—and changing any one of them can have per­va­sive effects on all the others. But that may not matter any­more. The approach takes advan­tage of the inter­de­pen­dent nature of com­plexity to devise a method for observing sys­tems that are oth­er­wise beyond quan­ti­ta­tive scrutiny. Using their novel approach, the researchers first iden­tify all the math­e­mat­ical equa­tions that describe the system’s dynamics.

Details on Probiotics - Custom Probiotics Probiotic bacteria are generally, though not exclusively, lactic acid bacteria and include Lactobacillus acidophilus, L. casei, L. bulgaricus, L. plantarum, L. salivarius, L. rhamnosus, L. reuteri, Bifidobacterium bifidum, B. longum, B. infantis and S. thermophilus. Probiotic bacteria are used in the production of yogurt, various fermented milk products and dietary supplemegutnts. Lactobacilli and Bifidobacteria are Gram-positive lactic acid-producing bacteria that constitute a major part of the normal intestinal microflora in animals and humans. Lactobacilli: Lactobacilli are Gram-positive, non-spore forming rods or coccobacilli. Bifidobacteria: Bifidobacteria constitute a major part of the normal intestinal microflora in humans throughout life. Below are some pictures of probiotic bacterias. The condition and function of the gastrointestinal tract is essential to our well being. The human intestinal microflora is highly important to the host for several reasons. Figure 2

Observability of complex systems Author Affiliations Edited by Giorgio Parisi, University of Rome, Rome, Italy, and approved December 26, 2012 (received for review September 6, 2012) Abstract A quantitative description of a complex system is inherently limited by our ability to estimate the system’s internal state from experimentally accessible outputs. Although the simultaneous measurement of all internal variables, like all metabolite concentrations in a cell, offers a complete description of a system’s state, in practice experimental access is limited to only a subset of variables, or sensors. Footnotes Author contributions: Y.

Less focused on recurrent bad feelings through probiotics People focus less on bad feelings and experiences from the past (i.e. rumination) after four weeks of probiotics administration. Psychologists Laura Steenbergen and Lorenza Colzato from the Leiden Institute of Brain and Cognition published their findings in Brain, Behavior and Immunity. Linking probiotics and negative mood Probiotics are live microorganisms which, when administered in adequate amounts, are fundamental in improving digestion and immune function. The research method Steenbergen asked 40 healthy subjects participating in the research to take a sachet containing powder which was mixed with lukewarm water or milk each day of the intervention. Less rumination through probiotics Compared to subjects who received the placebo intervention, participants who received the multispecies probiotics intervention showed significantly reduced ruminative thoughts. Explore further: Impact of probiotics on metabolic health in women with gestational diabetes

Morphological analysis (problem-solving) Morphological Analysis or General Morphological Analysis is a method developed by Fritz Zwicky (1967, 1969) for exploring all the possible solutions to a multi-dimensional, non-quantified complex problem.[1] General Morphology was developed by Fritz Zwicky, the Bulgarian-born, Swiss-national astrophysicist based at the California Institute of Technology. Among others, Zwicky applied Morphological Analysis (MA) to astronomical studies and the development of jet and rocket propulsion systems. Consider a complex, real-world problem, like those of marketing or making policies for a nation, where there are many governing factors, and most of them cannot be expressed as numerical time series data, as one would like to have for building mathematical models. Ritchey, T. (1998). Course on system design by Mark Sh. ^ Reprint of New Methods of Thought and Procedure: Contributions to the Symposium on Methodologies is available at www.swemorph.com/ma.html

en It is not accidental that all phenomena of human life are dominated by the search for daily bread … . Precise knowledge of what happens to food entering the organism must be the subject of ideal physiology, the physiology of the future. —Ivan Pavlov, Nobel Lecture, 12 December 1904 Abbreviation: CPIR, Cephalic phase insulin release. 1.Pavlov I 1902 The work of the digestive glands. 2.Woods SC, Hutton RA, Makous W1970 Conditioned insulin secretion in the albino rat. 3.Drazen DL, Vahl TP, D’Alessio DA, Seeley RJ, Woods SC2006 Effects of a fixed meal pattern on ghrelin secretion: evidence for a learned response independent of nutrient status. 4.Kojima M, Hosoda H, Date Y, Nakazato M, Matsuo H, Kangawa K1999 Ghrelin is a growth-hormone-releasing acylated peptide form stomach. 5.Williams DL, Cummings DE2005 Regulation of ghrelin in physiologic and pathophysiologic states. 7.Tschop M, Smiley DL, Heiman ML2000 Ghrelin induces adiposity in rodents.

Six degrees of separation Six degrees of separation. Early conceptions[edit] Shrinking world[edit] Theories on optimal design of cities, city traffic flows, neighborhoods and demographics were in vogue after World War I. These[citation needed] conjectures were expanded in 1929 by Hungarian author Frigyes Karinthy, who published a volume of short stories titled Everything is Different. One of these pieces was titled "Chains," or "Chain-Links." As a result of this hypothesis, Karinthy's characters believed that any two individuals could be connected through at most five acquaintances. A fascinating game grew out of this discussion. This idea both directly and indirectly influenced a great deal of early thought on social networks. Small world[edit] Milgram continued Gurevich's experiments in acquaintanceship networks at Harvard University in Cambridge, Massachusetts, U.S. Milgram's article made famous[7] his 1967 set of experiments to investigate de Sola Pool and Kochen's "small world problem." Research[edit] John L.

Woods1991.pdf 100 Very Cool Facts About The Human Body The Brain The human brain is the most complex and least understood part of the human anatomy. There may be a lot we don’t know, but here are a few interesting facts that we’ve got covered. Nerve impulses to and from the brain travel as fast as 170 miles per hour. Hair and Nails While they’re not a living part of your body, most people spend a good amount of time caring for their hair and nails. Facial hair grows faster than any other hair on the body. Internal Organs Though we may not give them much thought unless they’re bothering us, our internal organs are what allow us to go on eating, breathing and walking around. The largest internal organ is the small intestine. Bodily Functions We may not always like to talk about them, but everyone has to deal with bodily functions on a daily basis. Sneezes regularly exceed 100 mph. Sex and Reproduction As taboo as it may be in some places, sex is an important part of human life as a facet of relationships and the means to reproduce. Senses

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