s National Ocean Service Education: Nonpoint Source Pollution The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) defines point source pollution as “any single identifiable source of pollution from which pollutants are discharged, such as a pipe, ditch, ship or factory smokestack” (Hill, 1997). Factories and sewage treatment plants are two common types of point sources. Factories, including oil refineries, pulp and paper mills, and chemical, electronics and automobile manufacturers, typically discharge one or more pollutants in their discharged waters (called effluents). Some factories discharge their effluents directly into a waterbody. Another way that some factories and sewage treatment plants handle waste material is by mixing it with urban runoff in a combined sewer system. When it rains excessively, a combined sewer system may not be able handle the volume of water, and some of the combined runoff and raw sewage will overflow from the system, discharging directly into the nearest waterbody without being treated. (top)
GIS Commons: A Free eText about Geographic Information Systems Components | Chemical Pollution | Ocean Health Index Metals are chemical elements that are typically hard, shiny, malleable, fusible, and ductile, with good electrical and thermal conductivity. Metals are toxic if they change the structure and function of proteins and enzymes (GESAMP 2001). Metals found in the ocean that are highly toxic on their own include mercury, cadmium, lead, arsenic, tin, copper, nickel, selenium, and zinc. Mercury, cadmium, and lead can become even more highly toxic in combination with organic compounds. For example, mercury can form neurotoxic compounds such as methylmercury (CH3Hg), when combined with carbon. Arsenic, copper, nickel, selenium, tin, and zinc are not highly toxic by themselves but are able to react with organic materials, creating very toxic compounds (UNEP 2006). Many metals occur naturally in the environment, but anthropogenic emissions from industrial and mining activities can increase concentrations of many to toxic levels. 96% of mercury enters the ocean via atmospheric input (GESAMP 2001).
Chapter 1: Data and Information | The Nature of Geographic Information course home page Navigation Start Here Orientation Resources Course Text Recent comments more Search Chapter 1: Data and Information Printer-friendly version ‹ GEOG 482 up 1. Author: David DiBiase, Senior Lecturer, John A. Penn State Professional Masters Degree in GIS: Winner of the 2009 Sloan Consortium award for Most Outstanding Online Program © 2014 The Pennsylvania State University This courseware module is part of Penn State's College of Earth and Mineral Sciences' OER Initiative. The College of Earth and Mineral Sciences is committed to making its websites accessible to all users, and welcomes comments or suggestions on access improvements. untitled Global Administrative Areas | Boundaries without limits
untitled Natural Earth Mercury poisoning Symptoms typically include sensory impairment (vision, hearing, speech), disturbed sensation and a lack of coordination. The type and degree of symptoms exhibited depend upon the individual toxin, the dose, and the method and duration of exposure. Signs and symptoms Common symptoms of mercury poisoning include peripheral neuropathy (presenting as paresthesia or itching, burning or pain), skin discoloration (pink cheeks, fingertips and toes), swelling, and desquamation (shedding or peeling of skin). Mercury irreversibly inhibits selenium-dependent enzymes (see below) and may also inactivate S-adenosyl-methionine, which is necessary for catecholamine catabolism by catechol-o-methyl transferase. Thus, the clinical presentation may resemble pheochromocytoma or Kawasaki disease. An example of desquamation (skin peeling) of the hand and foot of a child with severe mercury poisoning acquired by handling elemental mercury is this photograph in Horowitz, et al. (2002). Causes
National Atlas home page The National Map is now offering a collection of small-scale datasets that can be downloaded for free. Although the 1997-2014 Edition of the National Atlas of the United States was retired in September 2014, The National Map recognizes the importance of continuing to make a collection of the small-scale datasets, originally developed for the National Atlas, available to users. Small-scale maps have an advantage over large-scale maps when there is a need to show a large area in a single view. The National Map collection of 197 small-scale datasets can be downloaded at small-scale data download page . Even though the 1997-2014 Edition of the National Atlas has retired, nationalmap.gov will continue to offer the Set of Dynamic Topographic Maps Illustrating Physical Features. The National Map Small-Scale website also link to Global Map, an international effort by national mapping organizations to produce consistent and accurate mapping data of the world at a scale of 1:1,000,000.
Mercury Causes Chronic Disease The association of mercury to chronic diseases is well documented in the didactic scientific literature. The search for the association between mercury and cardiovascular disease reveals 358 scientific papers exemplifying the relationship; between mercury and cancer we find 643 scientific papers. The association of mercury with neurodegenerative diseases is the most significant, with the references numbering 1,445. If mercury is the primary source of autism, it may befor Alzheimer’s disease and diabetes as well asa long list of other neurological disorders. Levels of mercury currently regarded as safe for adults could be impairing brain function without doctors and health officials diagnosing acute or chronic mercury poisoning. The main areas of anxiety in regards to mercury are dental, medical, and environmental. One thing to always remember about mercury is that it is an accumulative poison so one area of contamination is not separate from another.  Buttar, Rashid.
International Programs - Information Gateway Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) 1. What is the International Data Base? The International Data Base (IDB) offers a variety of demographic indicators for countries and areas of the world with a population of 5,000 or more. 2. The IDB provides many types of demographic data, including: · Estimates and projections of: Birth, death, and growth rates, migration rates, infant mortality, and life expectancy Fertility rates Total population and population by age and sex 3. The following ZIP file contains the complete data set which has currently been released and is used by the International Data Base tool. 4. The demographic estimates and projections found in the International Data Base are the result of over 30 years of analysis of census, survey, vital statistics, and other data by Census Bureau demographers. 5. The following reports cover fertility, mortality, and migration: 6. (play button). 7. For additional information, please see our Population Estimates and Projections Methodology page. 8.