In medicine, Raynaud's phenomenon /reɪˈnoʊz/ or Raynaud phenomenon is excessively reduced blood flow in response to cold or emotional stress, causing discoloration of the fingers, toes, and occasionally other areas. This condition may also cause nails to become brittle with longitudinal ridges. Named after French physician Maurice Raynaud (1834–1881), the phenomenon is believed to be the result of vasospasms that decrease blood supply to the respective regions. Raynaud's phenomenon by itself is just a sign (hypoperfusion) accompanied by a symptom (discomfort). When linked to pathogenesis, it can be part of Raynaud's disease (also known as primary Raynaud's phenomenon), where the cause is unknown, or part of Raynaud's syndrome (secondary Raynaud's phenomenon), which is a syndrome caused by a known primary disease, most commonly connective tissue disorders such as systemic lupus erythematosus. Signs and symptoms An image taken by a thermographic camera. Cause Primary
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The unanswered questionsThe phrase unanswered questions or undeclared questions (Sanskrit avyākṛta, Pali: avyākata - "unfathomable, unexpounded"), in Buddhism, refers to a set of common philosophical questions that Buddha refused to answer, according to Buddhist texts. The Pali texts give only ten, the Sanskrit texts fourteen questions. Fourteen questions According to their subject matter the questions can be grouped in four categories. Questions concerning the existence of the world in time 1. 2. ...or not? 3. ...or both? 4. ...or neither? (Pali texts omit "both" and "neither") Questions concerning the existence of the world in space 5. 6. ...or not? 7. ...or both? 8. ...or neither? Questions referring to personal identity 10. ...or is it different from the body? Questions referring to life after death 11. 12. ...or not? 13. ...or both? 14. ...or neither? Pali Canon Majjhima Nikaya 63  & 72  in the Pali canon contain a list of ten unanswered questions about certain views (ditthi):
BruxismBruxism is excessive teeth grinding or jaw clenching. It is an oral parafunctional activity; i.e., it is unrelated to normal function such as eating or talking. Bruxism is a common behavior; reports of prevalence range from 8–31% in the general population. Several symptoms are commonly associated with bruxism, including hypersensitive teeth, aching jaw muscles, headaches, tooth wear, and damage to dental restorations (e.g. crowns and fillings) to teeth. But symptoms may be minimal, without patient awareness of the condition. There are two main types of bruxism: one occurs during sleep (sleep bruxism) and one during wakefulness (awake bruxism). Dental damage may be similar in both types, but the symptoms of sleep bruxism tend to be worse on waking and improve during the course of the day, and the symptoms of awake bruxism may not be present at all on waking, and then worsen over the day. Signs and symptoms Tooth wear Tooth mobility Pain Causes
ErythromelalgiaErythromelalgia, formerly known as Mitchell's disease (after Silas Weir Mitchell), acromelalgia, red neuralgia, or erythermalgia, is a rare neurovascular peripheral pain disorder in which blood vessels, usually in the lower extremities or hands, are episodically blocked (frequently on and off daily), then become hyperemic and inflamed. There is severe burning pain (in the small fiber sensory nerves) and skin redness. The attacks are periodic and are commonly triggered by heat, pressure, mild activity, exertion, insomnia or stress. Erythromelalgia may occur either as a primary or secondary disorder (i.e. a disorder in and of itself or a symptom of another condition). In 2004 erythromelalgia became the first human disorder in which it has been possible to associate an ion channel mutation with chronic neuropathic pain; this became possible when a Yale neurologist[who?] Classification Incidence Symptoms and signs Cause Side effect of medication N.B.
Carpal tunnel syndromeCarpal tunnel syndrome (CTS) is a median entrapment neuropathy that causes paresthesia, pain, numbness, and other symptoms in the distribution of the median nerve due to its compression at the wrist in the carpal tunnel. The pathophysiology is not completely understood but can be considered compression of the median nerve traveling through the carpal tunnel. It appears to be caused by a combination of genetic and environmental factors. Some of the predisposing factors include: diabetes, obesity, pregnancy, hypothyroidism, and heavy manual work or work with vibrating tools. There is, however, little clinical data to prove that lighter, repetitive tasks can cause carpal tunnel syndrome. Other disorders such as bursitis and tendinitis have been associated with repeated motions performed in the course of normal work or other activities. Conservative treatments include use of night splints and corticosteroid injection. Signs and symptoms Untreated carpal tunnel syndrome
Overcome Social Anxiety with the 3-Second RuleLetter from Lewis Carroll to Winifred Stevens, May 22, 1887.AphasiaAphasia (/əˈfeɪʒə/, /əˈfeɪziə/ or /eɪˈfeɪziə/; from Ancient Greek ἀφασία aphasia meaning, "speechlessness", derived from ἄφατος aphatos, "speechless" from ἀ- a-, "not, un" and φημί phemi, "I speak") is a disturbance of the comprehension and formulation of language caused by dysfunction in specific brain regions. This class of language disorder ranges from having difficulty remembering words to losing the ability to speak, read, or write. This also affects visual language such as sign language. Aphasia is usually linked to brain damage, most commonly caused by stroke. Brain damage linked to aphasia can also cause further brain diseases, including cancer, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease. Classification Classifying the different subtypes of aphasia is difficult and has led to disagreements among experts. No classification of patients in subtypes and groups of subtypes is adequate. Localizationist model Cortex Progressive aphasias Deaf aphasia
Clouding of consciousnessHeavy mist filling a valley. The metaphor of a cloud or fog is used to convey the idea of this disturbed mental state. Clouding of consciousness, also known as brain fog or mental fog, is a term used in conventional medicine denoting an abnormality in the "regulation" of the "overall level" of consciousness that is mild and less severe than a delirium. The sufferer experiences a subjective sensation of mental clouding described as feeling "foggy". Background The term clouding of consciousness has always denoted the main pathogenetic feature of delirium since Greiner first pioneered the term (Verdunkelung des Bewusstseins) in 1817. The Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM) has historically used the term in its definition of delirium. Recently the DSM has replaced “clouding” with “disturbance” but it is still the same thing. Psychopathology Alternative medicine See also References
Wheeler's delayed choice experimentWheeler's delayed choice experiment is actually several thought experiments in quantum physics, proposed by John Archibald Wheeler, with the most prominent among them appearing in 1978 and 1984. These experiments are attempts to decide whether light somehow "senses" the experimental apparatus in the double-slit experiment it will travel through and adjusts its behavior to fit by assuming the appropriate determinate state for it, or whether light remains in an indeterminate state, neither wave nor particle, and responds to the "questions" asked of it by responding in either a wave-consistent manner or a particle-consistent manner depending on the experimental arrangements that ask these "questions." This line of experimentation proved very difficult to carry out when it was first conceived. Nevertheless, it has proven very valuable over the years since it has led researchers to provide "increasingly sophisticated demonstrations of the wave–particle duality of single quanta.
tumblr nt51lbDQs41qabj53o1 540Management of Cervical Dysplasia and Human Papillomavirus | Naturopathic Family CareThe page you are looking for might have been removed, had its name changed, or is temporarily unavailable. Please try the following: Technical Information (for support personnel) Go to Microsoft Product Support Services and perform a title search for the words HTTP and 404.Open IIS Help, which is accessible in IIS Manager (inetmgr), and search for topics titled Web Site Setup, Common Administrative Tasks, and About Custom Error Messages.Patient Information Leaflets (PILs) - British Association of DermatologistsAlopecia is a general term for hair loss. Alopecia areata is a specific, common cause of hair loss that can occur at any age. It usually causes small, coin-sized, round patches of baldness on the scalp, although hair elsewhere such as the beard, eyebrows, eyelashes, body and limbs can be affected. In some people larger areas are affected and occasionally it can involve the whole scalp (alopecia totalis) or even the entire body and scalp (alopecia universalis). It is not possible to predict how much hair will be lost.