Penn Medicine News: Deciphering Hidden Code Reveals Brain Activity PHILADELPHIA – By combining sophisticated mathematical techniques more commonly used by spies instead of scientists with the power and versatility of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), a Penn neurologist has developed a new approach for studying the inner workings of the brain. A hidden pattern is encoded in the seemingly random order of things presented to a human subject, which the brain reveals when observed with fMRI. The research is published in the journal NeuroImage. Geoffrey K. Breaking Codes in Brain Studies This approach measures how the order of things changes brain responses. Previous experiments have presented information to study participants in more or less completely random order. Beating the Blood Flow Problem Aguirre’s new algorithm for creating de Bruijn sequences also helps correct an important limitation of fMRI, which works by measuring changes in brain blood flow. For More Information
Brain is not fully mature until 30s and 40s (PhysOrg.com) -- New research from the UK shows the brain continues to develop after childhood and puberty, and is not fully developed until people are well into their 30s and 40s. The findings contradict current theories that the brain matures much earlier. Professor Sarah-Jayne Blakemore, a neuroscientist with the Institute of Cognitive Neuroscience at University College London, said until around a decade ago many scientists had "pretty much assumed that the human brain stopped developing in early childhood," but recent research has found that many regions of the brain continue to develop for a long time afterwards. The prefrontal cortex is the region at the front of the brain just behind the forehead, and is an area of the brain that undergoes the longest period of development. Prof. In earlier research Professor Blakemore studied the brains of teenagers in detail, as reported in PhysOrg. Explore further: Study: Our brains compensate for aging
Adolescents' brains respond differently than adults' when anticipating rewards Public release date: 17-Jan-2012 [ Print | E-mail Share ] [ Close Window ] Contact: B. Rose Huberrhuber@pitt.edu 412-624-4356University of Pittsburgh PITTSBURGH—Teenagers are more susceptible to developing disorders like addiction and depression, according to a paper published by Pitt researchers Jan. 16 in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences. The study was led by Bita Moghaddam, coauthor of the paper and a professor of neuroscience in Pitt's Kenneth P. "The brain region traditionally associated with reward and motivation, called the nucleus accumbens, was activated similarly in adults and adolescents," said Moghaddam. Typically, researchers study the correlation between different behaviors of adolescents and adults. The researchers' predictions proved accurate. The Pitt team will continue to compare adolescent and adult behavior, especially as it relates to stimulants—such as amphetamines—and their influence on brain activity. [ Print | E-mail AAAS and EurekAlert!
Neural balls and strikes: Where categories live in the brain Public release date: 15-Jan-2012 [ Print | E-mail Share ] [ Close Window ] Contact: Robert Mitchumrobert.email@example.com 773-484-9890University of Chicago Medical Center Hundreds of times during a baseball game, the home plate umpire must instantaneously categorize a fast-moving pitch as a ball or a strike. While monkeys played a computer game in which they had to quickly determine the category of a moving visual stimulus, neural recordings revealed brain activity that encoded those categories. "This is as close as we've come to the source of these abstract signals" said David Freedman, PhD, assistant professor of neurobiology at the University of Chicago. Organizing the chaos of the surrounding world into categories is one of the brain's key functions. "The number of decisions we make per minute is remarkable," Freedman said. During the task, scientists recorded neural activity in PFC and LIP.
Understanding the Eight Jungian Cognitive Processes / Eight Functions Attitudes Neuroscience of free will Neuroscience of free will is the part of neurophilosophy that studies the interconnections between free will and neuroscience. As it has become possible to study the living brain, researchers have begun to watch decision making processes at work. Findings could carry implications for our sense of agency and for moral responsibility and the role of consciousness in general. Relevant findings include the pioneering study by Benjamin Libet and its subsequent redesigns; these studies were able to detect activity related to a decision to move, and the activity appears to begin briefly before people become conscious of it. Other studies try to predict activity before overt action occurs. Taken together, these various findings show that at least some actions - like moving a finger - are initiated unconsciously at first, and enter consciousness afterward. A monk meditates. Overview -Patrick Haggard discussing an in-depth experiment by Itzhak Fried Criticisms
How walking through a doorway increases forgetting Like information in a book, unfolding events are stored in human memory in successive chapters or episodes. One consequence is that information in the current episode is easier to recall than information in a previous episode. An obvious question then is how the mind divides experience up into these discrete episodes? Dozens of participants used computer keys to navigate through a virtual reality environment presented on a TV screen. The key finding is that memory performance was poorer after travelling through an open doorway, compared with covering the same distance within the same room. But what if this result was only found because of the simplistic virtual reality environment? Another interpretation of the findings is that they have nothing to do with the boundary effect of a doorway, but more to do with the memory enhancing effect of context (the basic idea being that we find it easier to recall memories in the context that we first stored them).
this is (not) psychology Théorie des intelligences multiples Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. La théorie des intelligences multiples suggère qu'il existe plusieurs types d'intelligence chez l'enfant d'âge scolaire et aussi, par extension, chez l'Homme. Cette théorie fut pour la première fois proposée par Howard Gardner en 1983. L'origine de la théorie[modifier | modifier le code] Lorsque Howard Gardner publia son livre Frames of Mind: the Theory of Multiple Intelligence en 1983, il introduisit une nouvelle façon de comprendre l'intelligence des enfants en échec scolaire aux États-Unis. Les diverses catégories d'intelligence pour Howard Gardner[modifier | modifier le code] L’intelligence logico-mathématique[modifier | modifier le code] Les personnes qui ont une intelligence logico-mathématique développée possèdent la capacité de calculer, de mesurer, de faire preuve de logique et de résoudre des problèmes mathématiques et scientifiques. L’intelligence spatiale[modifier | modifier le code] Notes et références[modifier | modifier le code]
25 Acts of Body Language to Avoid Our body language exhibits far more information about how we feel than it is possible to articulate verbally. All of the physical gestures we make are subconsciously interpreted by others. This can work for or against us depending on the kind of body language we use. Some gestures project a very positive message, while others do nothing but set a negative tone. Most people are totally oblivious to their own body language, so the discipline of controlling these gestures can be quite challenging. Most of them are reflexive in nature, automatically matching up to what our minds are thinking at any given moment. Nevertheless, with the right information and a little practice, we can train ourselves to overcome most of our negative body language habits. Practice avoiding these 25 negative gestures: “ I speak two languages, Body and English. ” — Mae West Holding Objects in Front of Your Body – a coffee cup, notebook, hand bag, etc. Want to know powerful, dominant, confident body language postures?
List of emotions The contrasting and categorisation of emotions describes how emotions are thought to relate to each other. Various recent proposals of such groupings are described in the following sections. Contrasting basic emotions The following table, based on a wide review of current theories, identifies and contrasts the fundamental emotions according to a set of definite criteria. The three key criteria used include mental experiences that: have a strongly motivating subjective quality like pleasure or pain;are in response to some event or object that is either real or imagined;motivate particular kinds of behaviour. The combination of these attributes distinguish the emotions from sensations, feelings and moods. HUMAINE's proposal for EARL (Emotion Annotation and Representation Language) The emotion annotation and representation language (EARL) proposed by the Human-Machine Interaction Network on Emotion (HUMAINE) classifies 48 emotions. Parrott's emotions by groups
Murray's psychogenic needs In 1938 Henry Murray published Explorations in Personality, his system describing personality in terms of needs. For Murray, human nature involved a set of universal basic needs, with individual differences on these needs leading to the uniqueness of personality through varying dispositional tendencies for each need. In other words, specific needs are more important to some than to others. Frustration of these psychogenic (or psychological) needs plays a central role in the origin of psychological pain. Murray differentiated each need as unique, but recognised commonalities among the needs. Behaviors may meet more than one need: for instance, performing a difficult task for your fraternity may meet the needs of both achievement and affiliation. List of psychogenic needs This is a (partial) list of Murray's needs. See also Maslow's hierarchy of needs References Jump up ^ Murray, H. External links