background preloader

Ted Nelson

Ted Nelson
Biography[edit] Nelson is the son of Emmy Award-winning director Ralph Nelson and the Academy Award-winning actress Celeste Holm.[1] His parents' marriage was brief and he was mostly raised by his grandparents, first in Chicago and later in Greenwich Village.[2] Nelson earned a BA from Swarthmore College in 1959. While there, he made an experimental humorous student film titled The Epiphany of Slocum Furlow in which the titular hero discovers the meaning of life. His contemporary at the college, Peter Schickele scored the film.[3] In 1960 Nelson began graduate work at Harvard University in philosophy, earning a master's degree in sociology in 1963. Much later in life, in 2002, he obtained a Doctorate in Media and Governance from Keio University. During college and graduate school, he envisioned a computer-based writing system that would provide a lasting repository for the world's knowledge and also permit greater flexibility of drawing connections between ideas. Xanadu[edit] ZigZag[edit] Related:  CULTURE NUMERIQUEWiki

Ada Lovelace Augusta Ada King, Countess of Lovelace (10 December 1815 – 27 November 1852), born Augusta Ada Byron and now commonly known as Ada Lovelace, was an English mathematician and writer chiefly known for her work on Charles Babbage's early mechanical general-purpose computer, the Analytical Engine. Her notes on the engine include what is recognised as the first algorithm intended to be carried out by a machine. Because of this, she is often described as the world's first computer programmer.[1][2][3] Ada described her approach as "poetical science" and herself as an "Analyst (& Metaphysician)". As a young adult, her mathematical talents led her to an ongoing working relationship and friendship with fellow British mathematician Charles Babbage, and in particular Babbage's work on the Analytical Engine. Biography[edit] Childhood[edit] Ada, aged four On 16 January 1816, Annabella, at George's behest, left for her parents' home at Kirkby Mallory taking one-month-old Ada with her. Adult years[edit]

Simulated reality Simulated reality is the hypothesis that reality could be simulated—for example by computer simulation—to a degree indistinguishable from "true" reality. It could contain conscious minds which may or may not be fully aware that they are living inside a simulation. This is quite different from the current, technologically achievable concept of virtual reality. Virtual reality is easily distinguished from the experience of actuality; participants are never in doubt about the nature of what they experience. There has been much debate over this topic, ranging from philosophical discourse to practical applications in computing. Types of simulation[edit] Brain-computer interface[edit] Virtual people[edit] In a virtual-people simulation, every inhabitant is a native of the simulated world. Arguments[edit] Simulation argument[edit] 1. 2. 3. In greater detail, Bostrom is attempting to prove a tripartite disjunction, that at least one of these propositions must be true. Relativity of reality[edit]

Alan Turing Alan Mathison Turing, OBE, FRS (/ˈtjʊərɪŋ/ TEWR-ing; 23 June 1912 – 7 June 1954) was a British mathematician, logician, cryptanalyst, philosopher, pioneering computer scientist, mathematical biologist, and marathon and ultra distance runner. He was highly influential in the development of computer science, providing a formalisation of the concepts of "algorithm" and "computation" with the Turing machine, which can be considered a model of a general purpose computer.[2][3][4] Turing is widely considered to be the father of theoretical computer science and artificial intelligence.[5] During World War II, Turing worked for the Government Code and Cypher School (GC&CS) at Bletchley Park, Britain's codebreaking centre. After the war, he worked at the National Physical Laboratory, where he designed the ACE, among the first designs for a stored-program computer. Turing was prosecuted for homosexuality in 1952, when such acts were still criminalised in the UK. Early life and career[edit]

Serial Experiments Lain Serial Experiments Lain (シリアルエクスペリメンツレイン Shiriaru Ekusuperimentsu Rein), is an anime series directed by Ryutaro Nakamura, original character design by Yoshitoshi ABe, screenplay written by Chiaki J. Konaka, and produced by Yasuyuki Ueda (credited as production 2nd) for Triangle Staff. It was broadcast on TV Tokyo from July to September 1998. A PlayStation game with the same title was released in November 1998 by Pioneer LDC. The anime series was licensed in North America by Geneon (formerly Pioneer Entertainment) on DVD, VHS, and LaserDisc. The series demonstrates influences embracing philosophy, computer history, cyberpunk literature, and conspiracy theory, and it was made the subject of several academic articles. Plot[edit] Masami Eiri is introduced as the project director on Protocol Seven (the next generation internet protocol in the series' time-frame) for major computer company Tachibana General Laboratories. Characters[edit] Lain Iwakura (岩倉 玲音, Iwakura Rein?) Taro (タロウ, Tarō?)

Lev Manovich Lev Manovich is an author of books on new media theory, professor in Computer Science program at City University of New York, Graduate Center, U.S. and visiting professor European Graduate School in Saas-Fee, Switzerland. Manovich's research and teaching focuses on digital humanities, new media art and theory, and software studies[1] His best known book is The Language of New Media, which has been widely reviewed and translated into eight languages. According to two reviewers, this book offers "the first rigorous and far-reaching theorization of the subject"[2] and "it places new media within the most suggestive and broad ranging media history since Marshall McLuhan".[3] Manovich's new book Software Takes Command was published in 2013 by Bloomsbury and also released under a Creative Commons license. Biography[edit] Manovich has been working with computer media as an artist, computer animator, designer, and programmer since 1984. Manovich has been teaching new media art since 1992.

The Rediscovery of Man The Rediscovery of Man: The Complete Short Science Fiction of Cordwainer Smith (ISBN 0-915368-56-0) is a 1993 book containing the complete collected short fiction of science fiction author Cordwainer Smith. It was edited by James A. Mann and published by NESFA Press. Most of the stories take place in Smith's future history set in the universe of the Instrumentality of Mankind; the collection is arranged in the chronological order in which the stories take place in the fictional timeline. The collection also contains short stories which do not take place in this universe. Within the context of the future history, the Rediscovery of Mankind refers to the Instrumentality's re-introduction of chance and unhappiness into the sterile utopia that they had created for humanity. List of Instrumentality of Man stories[edit] "No, No, Not Rogov!"" "The Queen of the Afternoon" is a posthumous sequel to "Mark Elf". Stories marked with an asterisk were published posthumously. Other stories[edit]

John Maeda John Maeda (born 1966 in Seattle, Washington) is a Japanese-American graphic designer, computer scientist, academic, and author. His work in design, technology and leadership explores the area where the fields merge. He was the President of the Rhode Island School of Design from 2008 to 2013.[1] [2] He is currently a Design Partner at Kleiner Perkins Caufield & Byers.[3] Maeda was originally a software engineering student at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology, when he became fascinated with the work of Paul Rand and Muriel Cooper. Cooper was a director of MIT's Visual Language Workshop. As an artist, Maeda’s early work redefined the use of electronic media as a tool for expression by combining computer programming with traditional artistic technique, laying the groundwork for the interactive motion graphics that are taken for granted on the web today. At RISD, Maeda is leading the movement to transform STEM (Science, Technology, Engineering, and Math) to STEAM by adding Art.

Schumann resonances Animation of Schumann resonance in Earth's atmosphere. The Schumann resonances (SR) are a set of spectrum peaks in the extremely low frequency (ELF) portion of the Earth's electromagnetic field spectrum. Schumann resonances are global electromagnetic resonances, excited by lightning discharges in the cavity formed by the Earth's surface and the ionosphere. Description[edit] This global electromagnetic resonance phenomenon is named after physicist Winfried Otto Schumann who predicted it mathematically in 1952. In the normal mode descriptions of Schumann resonances, the fundamental mode is a standing wave in the Earth–ionosphere cavity with a wavelength equal to the circumference of the Earth. Observations of Schumann resonances have been used to track global lightning activity. History[edit] In 1893, George Francis FitzGerald noted that the upper layers of the atmosphere must be fairly good conductors. Basic theory[edit] In an ideal cavity, the resonant frequency of the -th mode

Tim Berners-Lee Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Tim Berners-Lee Tim Berners-Lee en 2010. Compléments Timothy John Berners-Lee, KBE, né le 8 juin 1955 à Londres, est un citoyen britannique, principal inventeur du World Wide Web (WWW) au tournant des années 1990. Biographie[modifier | modifier le code] Tim Berners-Lee est né le 8 juin 1955 à Londres, en Angleterre. Il est père de deux enfants. Carrière[modifier | modifier le code] L'invention du World Wide Web[modifier | modifier le code] L'ordinateur NeXT, utilisé par Tim Berners-Lee pour inventer le World Wide Web. En 1980, il intègre l'Organisation européenne pour la recherche nucléaire (CERN). L'objectif de cette proposition est le partage des documents informatiques, ce que Tim Berners-Lee a l'idée de réaliser en associant le principe de l’hypertexte à l'utilisation d'Internet. Capture d'écran du navigateur World Wide Web C'est en mai 1990 qu'il adopte l'expression de World Wide Web pour nommer son projet.

Roswell UFO incident Coordinates: The Roswell UFO incident took place in the U.S. in June or July 1947, when an airborne object crashed on a ranch near Roswell, New Mexico. Explanations of what took place are based on both official and unofficial communications. Although the crash is attributed to a secret U.S. military Air Force surveillance balloon by the U.S. government,[1] the most famous explanation of what occurred is that the object was a spacecraft containing extraterrestrial life. Since the late 1970s, the Roswell incident has been the subject of much controversy, and conspiracy theories have arisen about the event. The United States Armed Forces maintains that what was recovered near Roswell was debris from the crash of an experimental high-altitude surveillance balloon belonging to what was then a classified (top secret) program named Mogul. Subsequently the incident faded from the attention of UFO researchers for over 30 years. Contemporary accounts[edit] Witnesses[edit]

Ward Cunningham Un article de Wikipédia, l'encyclopédie libre. Ward Cunningham (né le ) est un informaticien américain connu, entre autres, pour avoir inventé le concept de wiki, qui a permis notamment l'élaboration de Wikipédia, qui fait partie des dix sites web les plus consultés au monde en 2012. Ses contributions[modifier | modifier le code] On peut le présenter comme un théoricien du développement de logiciels. On lui doit les contributions suivantes : il est le créateur du concept de wiki qui permet à plusieurs auteurs de contribuer à la création d'un document ;il est l'un des pères d'une variante des méthodologie de développement Agile, l'Extreme Programming. Ses motivations pour créer le système wiki[modifier | modifier le code] Informaticien de la première heure, enseignant, mais aussi consultant autour de problématiques théoriques de développement de projets, il résume en ces termes les motifs qui l'ont conduit à créer le système wiki : Voir aussi[modifier | modifier le code]

Majestic 12 In UFO conspiracy theories, Majestic 12 (or MJ-12) is the code name of an alleged secret committee of scientists, military leaders, and government officials, formed in 1947 by an executive order by U.S. President Harry S. Truman to facilitate recovery and investigation of alien spacecraft. History and analysis[edit] The concept of "Majestic Twelve" emerged during a period in the 1980s when ufologists believed there had been a cover-up of the Roswell UFO incident and speculated some secretive upper tier of the United States government was responsible.[3] Their suppositions appeared to be confirmed in 1984 when ufologist Jaime Shandera received an envelope containing film which, when developed, showed images of eight pages of documents that appeared to be briefing papers describing "Operation Majestic Twelve".[3] The documents purported to reveal a secret committee of twelve, supposedly authorized by United States President Harry S. Ufologists Linda Moulton Howe and Stanton T. Stanton T.

Jesse James Garrett Career[edit] Jesse James Garrett is a co-founder of Adaptive Path, a user experience strategy and design firm, and co-founded the Information Architecture Institute. His essays have appeared in New Architect,[3] Boxes and Arrows,[4] and Digital Web Magazine.[5] Jesse attended the University of Florida. Garrett authored The Elements of User Experience, a conceptual model of user-centered design first published as a diagram in 2000 and later as a book in 2002. A second edition of the book was published in 2010.[6] Although originally intended for use in web design, the Elements model has since been adopted in other fields such as software development and industrial design.[7] He also created the first[8] standardized notation for interaction design, known as the Visual Vocabulary.[9] In 2008, Garrett designed the Aurora[12] concept for a future Web browser for the Mozilla Corporation. Garrett's project "iWitness" was one of the winners of the John S. and James L. Awards[edit]