# Patterns in nature

Natural patterns form as wind blows sand in the dunes of the Namib Desert. The crescent shaped dunes and the ripples on their surfaces repeat wherever there are suitable conditions. Patterns in nature are visible regularities of form found in the natural world. In the 19th century, Belgian physicist Joseph Plateau examined soap films, leading him to formulate the concept of a minimal surface. Mathematics, physics and chemistry can explain patterns in nature at different levels. History In 1202, Leonardo Fibonacci (c 1170 – c 1250) introduced the Fibonacci number sequence to the western world with his book Liber Abaci.[5] Fibonacci gave an (unrealistic) biological example, on the growth in numbers of a theoretical rabbit population.[6] In 1917, D'Arcy Wentworth Thompson (1860–1948) published his book On Growth and Form. The American photographer Wilson Bentley (1865–1931) took the first micrograph of a snowflake in 1885.[10] Causes Types of pattern Symmetry

Golden ratio Line segments in the golden ratio In mathematics, two quantities are in the golden ratio if their ratio is the same as the ratio of their sum to the larger of the two quantities. The figure on the right illustrates the geometric relationship. Expressed algebraically, for quantities a and b with a > b > 0, The golden ratio is also called the golden section (Latin: sectio aurea) or golden mean.[1][2][3] Other names include extreme and mean ratio,[4] medial section, divine proportion, divine section (Latin: sectio divina), golden proportion, golden cut,[5] and golden number.[6][7][8] Some twentieth-century artists and architects, including Le Corbusier and Dalí, have proportioned their works to approximate the golden ratio—especially in the form of the golden rectangle, in which the ratio of the longer side to the shorter is the golden ratio—believing this proportion to be aesthetically pleasing (see Applications and observations below). Calculation Therefore, Multiplying by φ gives and History

Eye-popping Ways Artists Use Paper In the year since the Museum of Art and Design reopened in its new digs on Columbus Circle, they've been delivering consistently compelling shows--from punk-rock lace to radical knitting experiments. The newest, "Slash: Paper Under the Knife", opened last weekend and runs through April 4, 2010. The focus is paper--and the way contemporary artists have used paper itself as a medium, whether by cutting, tearing, burning, or shredding. In all, the show features 50 artists and a dozen installations made just for the show, including Andreas Kocks's Paperwork #701G (in the Beginning), seen above. Mia Pearlman's Eddy: Ferry Staverman, A Space Odesey: A detail of a sprawling work by Andrew Scott Ross, Rocks and Rocks and Caves and Dreams: Lane Twitchell's Peaceable Kingdom (Evening Land): Béatrice Coron, WaterCity: Between the Lines, by Ariana Boussard-Reifel: A book with every single word cut out: Chris Kenny's Grand Island, part of a series of "maps" depicting a fictional city:

The 83 best infographics | Infographic Every picture tells a story, as they say, but sometimes it takes a clever combination of words and pictures to tell a story quickly, concisely and in an entertaining fashion. The best infographics may look like they were simple to create in Photoshop, but designing an effective piece of data visualization is usually anything but. There are several great tools to create infographics, but these examples of infographics from around the web will show you how you can take it a step further and add a bit of style and personality to your data. Some are older than others, but they can still provide some inspiration for those of you looking to create an infographic from scratch. Some are funny, some more serious, and all are inspiring examples of the art. If Star Wars: The Last Jedi has put you in the mood to immediately watch the original movie, hold your horses just one second. 02. 03. Are you reading this slumped at your desk? 04. Do you know your aperture from your apex? 06. 07. 09. 16. 17.

10 Amazing Examples of Architecture Inspired by Mathematics The link between math and architecture goes back to ancient times, when the two disciplines were virtually indistinguishable. Pyramids and temples were some of the earliest examples of mathematical principles at work. Today, math continues to feature prominently in building design. We’re not just talking about mere measurements — though elements like that are integral to architecture. Mobius Strip Temple You probably made a Mobius Strip in grade school math class, so you should remember that the geometric form is unique in that there is no orientation. Snowflake Snowflake viewed in an optical microscope A snowflake is either a single ice crystal or an aggregation of ice crystals which falls through the Earth's atmosphere.[1] They begin as snow crystals which develop when microscopic supercooled cloud droplets freeze. Snowflakes come in a variety of sizes and shapes. Formation Snow crystals form when tiny supercooled cloud droplets (about 10 μm in diameter) freeze. The exact details of the sticking mechanism remain controversial. Symmetry A non-aggregated snowflake often exhibits six-fold radial symmetry. Uniqueness Almost all snowflakes are unique Snowflakes form in a wide variety of intricate shapes, leading to the popular expression that "no two are alike". Use as a symbol Snow flake symbol Snowflakes are also often used as symbols representing winter or cold conditions. Gallery A selection of photographs taken by Wilson Bentley (1865–1931): See also References ^ Jump up to: a b William J. Further reading

Utopia’s Best Street Art of 2011 I couldn’t help but direct everyone to fellow public art loving blog Street Art Utopia as they have compiled a pretty decent list of the best street art of 2011. If you are just getting into the wonderful world of pasting, spraying or making the streets a more creative place, this list is a great place to start (short of Wall and Piece). One of the best things about this genre is it’s diversity – you can decided what you find gimmicky/twee or meaningful and awe-inspiring. Street art has always been the public’s voice, and the art world has yielded success to those with great ideas and a call for change. More from the list after the jump!

14 Ways to Present Information Visually Lots of information to share? Making an infographic? Here are 14 ways to visually organize your information, with examples and tips on when to use them. There are two ways to discover the best way to go about presenting information or a story visually: Get to know your data or story intimately. For this post, I’ve tried to do the latter for you (if you want to cultivate your zen garden, I can’t do anything for you). The process: I went to Visual.ly (an excellent source for infographics, and the community around them) and reviewed a couple hundred of the most popular infographics by pageviews. When does a particular visual approach really work? Anatomy An anatomy visual or infographic provides an annotated exploration of the contents of a large and complicated object or idea. When do you use it? Design notes: Although our goal is to illustrate and elucidate complexity, you need to resist the temptation to get too detailed and explicit. Timeline When do you use it? An example: Battlefield vs.

Mathematics and architecture Mathematics and architecture are related. Architects intentionally or accidentally use mathematical proportions to shape buildings. In ancient Greece, the golden ratio may have been used to lay out some buildings. In Renaissance architecture, symmetry and mathematical proportion were deliberately emphasized. In the twentieth century, styles such as modern architecture and Deconstructivism explored different geometries to achieve desired effects. Ancient times The Parthenon has been claimed to follow the proportions of the golden rectangle The ancient Egyptian pyramids at Giza have mathematical proportions, either by accident or by design. The Virupaksha temple at Hampi has a fractal-like structure where the parts resemble the whole. Ancient Greece In Greek architecture, the golden rectangle (also known as Phi, the golden section, golden ratio, or golden mean), served as a canon for planning architectural designs. Islamic architecture Other civilizations Renaissance

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