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Self-efficacy is the extent or strength of one's belief in one's own ability to complete tasks and reach goals.[1] Psychologists have studied self-efficacy from several perspectives, noting various paths in the development of self-efficacy; the dynamics of self-efficacy, and lack thereof, in many different settings; interactions between self-efficacy and self-concept; and habits of attribution that contribute to, or detract from, self-efficacy. This can be seen as the ability to persist and a person's ability to succeed with a task. As an example, self-efficacy directly relates to how long someone will stick to a workout regimen or a diet. High and low self-efficacy determine whether or not someone will choose to take on a challenging task or "write it off" as impossible. Self-efficacy affects every area of human endeavor. Theoretical approaches[edit] Social cognitive theory[edit] Social learning theory[edit] Self-concept theory[edit] Main article: Self-concept Attribution theory[edit] 1. 2.

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Milgram experiment The experimenter (E) orders the teacher (T), the subject of the experiment, to give what the latter believes are painful electric shocks to a learner (L), who is actually an actor and confederate. The subject believes that for each wrong answer, the learner was receiving actual electric shocks, though in reality there were no such punishments. Being separated from the subject, the confederate set up a tape recorder integrated with the electro-shock generator, which played pre-recorded sounds for each shock level.[1] The experiments began in July 1961, three months after the start of the trial of German Nazi war criminal Adolf Eichmann in Jerusalem. Milgram devised his psychological study to answer the popular question at that particular time: "Could it be that Eichmann and his million accomplices in the Holocaust were just following orders? Could we call them all accomplices?"

Harlow (1958) An internet resource developed by Christopher D. Green , ISSN 1492-3173 (Return to Classics index) Harry F. Harlow (1958)[1] Here Comes Everybody This article is about the book. For the fictional character, see Finnegans Wake. Here Comes Everybody: The Power of Organizing Without Organizations is a book by Clay Shirky published by Penguin Press in 2008 on the effect of the Internet on modern group dynamics and organization. The author considers examples such as Wikipedia and MySpace in his analysis. According to Shirky, the book is about "what happens when people are given the tools to do things together, without needing traditional organizational structures".[1] The title of the work alludes to HCE, a recurring and central figure in James Joyce's Finnegans Wake.[2]

The influence of self-efficacy, gender stereotypes and the importance of it skills on college students' intentions to pursue IT careers Diversity-related themes such as social inclusion, community informatics, and broadening participation in undergraduate and graduate education are consistently discussed at the i-Conference. In this paper, the authors examine three factors (self-efficacy, gender stereotypes about IT skills, and the importance of IT skills) which are critical in shaping career choices of the iSchool undergraduate population. To further our understanding of human diversity, we seek to determine if there is variation in these three factors by race/ethnicity. The findings suggest that students across racial and ethnic backgrounds are similar in their beliefs about job skills required for IT careers as well as their ability to acquire and perform these skills. However, students seem to be more confident in their non-technical skills and place highest importance on human skills.

Speciation Speciation is the evolutionary process by which new biological species arise. The biologist Orator F. Cook seems to have been the first to coin the term 'speciation' for the splitting of lineages or "cladogenesis," as opposed to "anagenesis" or "phyletic evolution" occurring within lineages.[1][2] Whether genetic drift is a minor or major contributor to speciation is the subject matter of much ongoing discussion.

Imprinting (psychology) In psychology and ethology, imprinting is any kind of phase-sensitive learning (learning occurring at a particular age or a particular life stage) that is rapid and apparently independent of the consequences of behavior. It was first used to describe situations in which an animal or person learns the characteristics of some stimulus, which is therefore said to be "imprinted" onto the subject. Imprinting is hypothesized to have a critical period. Very small mallard chicks following their mother The best-known form of imprinting is filial imprinting, in which a young animal acquires several of its behavioral characteristics from its parent.

When Profits Can Take a Back Seat to Doing Good A brownie supplier to Ben & Jerry's ice cream, a skateboard maker and a payday lender are among the hundreds of existing businesses that plan to incorporate as "benefit corporations" in coming months. They will be taking advantage of a new and untested corporate charter, available in only a half dozen states, allowing a company's governing board to consider social or environment objectives ahead of profits. The legal structure is intended to shield the board from investor lawsuits. That anything other than maximizing shareholder value should be considered in a company's decision-making normally can open the door to investor suits. self-efficacy "...refers to situation-specific self-confidence as “self-efficacy” which is the strength of an individual’s belief that he or she can successfully perform a given activity." Without confidence in one’s ability, an individual cannot perform to his or her potential. It is even possible that someone with lesser ability, but with confidence, can outperform this person because belief in oneself can be a powerful influence. What is this sense of confidence? Albert Bandura refers to situation-specific self-confidence as “self-efficacy” which is the strength of an individual’s belief that he or she can successfully perform a given activity.

Chimpanzee Chimpanzees, sometimes colloquially chimp, are two extant hominid species of apes in the genus Pan. The Congo River divides the native habitats of the two species:[2] Chimpanzees are members of the family Hominidae, along with gorillas, humans, and orangutans. Chimpanzees split from the human branch of the family about four to six million years ago. Chimpanzees are the closest living relatives to humans, being members of the tribe Hominini (along with extinct species of subtribe Hominina).

How to Be Charismatic: 7 Powerful Tips from the Mentalist Image by CielChen (license). My favourite new TV-show is The Mentalist. One of my favourite little interests over the last year or so has been to try to figure out why some people stand out, why they are charismatic. Now, if you have seen the Mentalist – a show about a former fake psychic who’s really good at reading people and helps the police out with solving a weekly murder case – then you have probably seen how charismatic Simon Baker is in the lead role. And even if you haven’t, this article just draws some inspiration that show. Many of these qualities are those one may find in many other people that are often considered charismatic like George Clooney, Bill Clinton or just some friend you might have.

IS SOCIAL-ACTUALIZATION REPLACING SELF-ACTUALIZATION? First posted on Huffington Post 11.6.12 Self-actualization? Abraham Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs pyramid with “being all you can be” at the top (co-opted by the U.S. Army as a marketing slogan) was a wake-up call for Americans in the 1950s when personal behavior and goals were so influenced by predominant societal ways.