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Stress (biology)

Stress (biology)
Walter Cannon used it in 1926 to refer to external factors that disrupted what he called homeostasis.[2] But "...stress as an explanation of lived experience is absent from both lay and expert life narratives before the 1930s".[3] Physiological stress represents a wide range of physical responses that occur as a direct effect of a stressor causing an upset in the homeostasis of the body. Upon immediate disruption of either psychological or physical equilibrium the body responds by stimulating the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. The reaction of these systems causes a number of physical changes that have both short and long term effects on the body. Homeostasis is a concept central to the idea of stress. The ambiguity in defining this phenomenon was first recognized by Hans Selye (1907-1982) in 1926. Human brain (hypothalamus=red, amygdala=green, hippocampus/fornix=blue, pons=gold, pituitary gland=pink) The Spinal Cord Human spinal cord Adrenal gland Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Related:  Brainshit1: INTRODUCING STRESSMental Health

notes: page 4 Goal of Stress Management: Psyche (psychology) 19th century psychologists such as Franz Brentano developed the concept of the psyche in a more subjective direction. The id, which represents the instinctual drives of an individual and remains largely unconscious.The super-ego, which represents a person's conscience and their internalization of societal norms and morality.The ego, which is conscious and serves to integrate the drives of the id with the prohibitions of the super-ego. Freud believed this conflict to be at the heart of neurosis. Carl Jung wrote much of his work in German. I have been compelled, in my investigations into the structure of the unconscious, to make a conceptual distinction between soul and psyche. [The translation of the German word Seele presents almost insuperable difficulties on account of the lack of a single English equivalent and because it combines the two words "psyche" and "soul" in a way not altogether familiar to the English reader. The word "mind" is preferred by cognitive scientists to "psyche".

Stress Management Group Activities Stress, in and of itself, is not good or bad. It can be motivating. It can also be physically and psychologically harmful. The effect of stress is determined by your reaction to it so learning to manage it is a necessity. Activity #1: Have a Treasure Hunt Treasure hunts are a fun way to have groups work in smaller teams, teach problem-solving skills, and introduce a little friendly competition. Purpose Treasure hunts can strengthen relationships, foster teamwork, and help new members fit in. Design There are many possibilities when it comes to designing a treasure hunt. Having to figure out riddles to find the next clue Having to find a list of objects (or specific information) within a certain area Materials You'll need the following materials for this activity. Paper/pen for clues A prize for the winning team Instructions Here is an example of a clue-focused treasure hunt. Decide the geographic scope of the hunt. Alternate Method Activity #2: Play With Stress Balls Meditation can help by:

stress indicators by Pauline N. Harding, MD, who is residency trained in Internal Medicine, Board Certified in Family Practice, and licensed as a Nutrition Counselor. She is an instructor in the Department of Family Practice at the University of Illinois College of Medicine in Chicago. She has been on the speakers' forum for the Rush Presbyterian St. Luke's Medical Center Conference for Body-Mind Healing and the Wilson Foundation Conference on Ethics for High School Science Teachers, and she has acted as panel discussant for the American Psychological Association. Let's take a look at a major contributor to the aging process and what it can tell us about slowing the ravages of time on our health. The Adrenal Gland Cortisol is secreted by the adrenal glands, which are located above the kidneys. Each adrenal gland is composed of two separate functional components. The Adrenal Circadian Rhythm and Its Significance Energy Production Muscle and Joint Function Bone Integrity Immune System Health and High Cortisol

20 Small Things To Do When Gender Dysphoria Gets You Down The Science of Stress We all experience stress. Even the most seemingly Zen-like person, with not a worry in the world, has experienced stress. I can assure you that stress is an innate emotion, which everyone experiences from time to time. While there are many definitions of stress, I like to think of it as something that disturbs homeostasis.1 Stress is not something that we should try to avoid as if it were some sort of unhealthy food. Where Does Stress Come From? Stress primarily develops from two sources: external and internal. <a href=" src=" alt="The Most Common Sources of Stress" border="0" /></a><br />Source: <a href=" Blog</a> Close Embed Image Stress and Time Stress can come on quickly, like when you find out you have a pop quiz in five minutes, or it can linger in the back of your mind for weeks, like when preparing for an important business meeting. Sources:

Dopamine Dopamine (contracted from 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is a hormone (also known as Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone/Factor - PIH or PIF) and neurotransmitter of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the human brain and body. Its name derives from its chemical structure: it is an amine that is formed by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of L-DOPA. In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other nerve cells. The brain includes several distinct dopamine systems, one of which plays a major role in reward-motivated behavior. Most types of reward increase the level of dopamine in the brain, and a variety of addictive drugs increase dopamine neuronal activity. Other brain dopamine systems are involved in motor control and in controlling the release of several other important hormones. A variety of important drugs work by altering the way the body makes or uses dopamine.

Oxytocin: the "love hormone" Oxytocin (/ˌɒksɨˈtoʊsɪn/; Oxt) is a mammalian neurohypophysial hormone. Produced by the hypothalamus and stored and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, oxytocin acts primarily as a neuromodulator in the brain. Oxytocin plays an important role in the neuroanatomy of intimacy, specifically in sexual reproduction of both sexes, in particular during and after childbirth; its name comes from Greek ὀξύς, oksys "swift" and τόκος, tokos "birth." It is released in large amounts after distension of the cervix and uterus during labor, facilitating birth, maternal bonding, and, after stimulation of the nipples, lactation. Recent studies have begun to investigate oxytocin's role in various behaviors, including orgasm, social recognition, pair bonding, anxiety, and maternal behaviors.[4] For this reason, it is sometimes referred to as the "bonding hormone". Medical uses[edit] Injected oxytocin analogues are used for labor induction and to support labor in case of difficult parturition.

Saturday Morning Cartoons: Little Monster Welcome to Saturday Morning Cartoons, a segment where four artists take turns delighting you with their whimsy, facts and punchlines on Saturday mornings! Our esteemed cartoon critters are Cameron Glavin, Anna Bongiovanni, Megan Praz and Yao Xiao. Today’s cartoon is by Cameron! Are you following us on Facebook? Cameron Cameron is an illustrator hailing from Ohio. Cameron has written 28 articles for us. The Fight or Flight Response - What is the "fight or flight response?" This fundamental physiologic response forms the foundation of modern day stress medicine. The "fight or flight response" is our body's primitive, automatic, inborn response that prepares the body to "fight" or "flee" from perceived attack, harm or threat to our survival. What happens to us when we are under excessive stress? When we experience excessive stress—whether from internal worry or external circumstance—a bodily reaction is triggered, called the "fight or flight" response. What are the signs that our fight or flight response has been stimulated (activated)? When our fight or flight response is activated, sequences of nerve cell firing occur and chemicals like adrenaline, noradrenaline and cortisol are released into our bloodstream. When our fight or flight system is activated, we tend to perceive everything in our environment as a possible threat to our survival. What is our fight or flight system designed to protect us from? Yes. 1. 1.

Amygdala: threat asessment and learning Human brain in the coronal orientation. Amygdalae are shown in dark red. Structure[edit] MRI coronal view of the left amygdala Anatomically, the amygdala[7] and more particularly, its central and medial nuclei,[8] have sometimes been classified as a part of the basal ganglia. Hemispheric specializations[edit] There are functional differences between the right and left amygdala. Each side holds a specific function in how we perceive and process emotion. The right hemisphere of the amygdala is associated with negative emotion. The right hemisphere is also linked to declarative memory, which consists of information that can be consciously recalled. Amygdalar Development[edit] There is considerable growth within the first few years of structural development in both male and female amygdalae. In addition to longer periods of development, other neurological and hormonal factors may contribute to sex-specific developmental differences. Sex differences[edit] Function[edit] Connections[edit] Fear[edit]