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Stress (biology)

Stress (biology)
Walter Cannon used it in 1926 to refer to external factors that disrupted what he called homeostasis.[2] But "...stress as an explanation of lived experience is absent from both lay and expert life narratives before the 1930s".[3] Physiological stress represents a wide range of physical responses that occur as a direct effect of a stressor causing an upset in the homeostasis of the body. Upon immediate disruption of either psychological or physical equilibrium the body responds by stimulating the nervous, endocrine, and immune systems. The reaction of these systems causes a number of physical changes that have both short and long term effects on the body. Homeostasis is a concept central to the idea of stress. In biology, most biochemical processes strive to maintain equilibrium (homeostasis), a steady state that exists more as an ideal and less as an achievable condition. The ambiguity in defining this phenomenon was first recognized by Hans Selye (1907-1982) in 1926. The Spinal Cord

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Outpatient commitment Outpatient commitment refers to mental health law that allows the involuntary treatment of individuals diagnosed with mental disorders who are resident in the community rather than detained in hospital. The individual may be subject to rapid recall to hospital, including for forced treatment, if the conditions of the plan/order are broken. This generally means taking psychiatric medication as directed and may also include attending appointments with a mental health professional, and sometimes even not to take non-prescribed illict drugs and not associate with certain people or in certain places deemed to have been linked to a deterioration in mental health in that individual. In the United States the term "assisted outpatient treatment" or "AOT" is often used and refers to a process whereby a judge orders a qualifying person with symptoms of severe untreated mental illness to adhere to a mental health treatment plan while living in the community. Implementation[edit]

Stress (psychological) In psychology, stress is a feeling of strain and pressure. Small amounts of stress may be desired, beneficial, and even healthy. Positive stress helps improve athletic performance. It also plays factor in motivation, adaptation, and reaction to the environment. Excessive amounts of stress however, may lead to many problems in the body that could be harmful. Stress can be external and related to the environment,[1] but may also be created by internal perceptions that cause an individual to have anxiety or other negative emotions surrounding a situation, such as pressure, discomfort, etc., which they then deem stressful. Dopamine Dopamine (contracted from 3,4-dihydroxyphenethylamine) is a hormone (also known as Prolactin Inhibiting Hormone/Factor - PIH or PIF) and neurotransmitter of the catecholamine and phenethylamine families that plays a number of important roles in the human brain and body. Its name derives from its chemical structure: it is an amine that is formed by removing a carboxyl group from a molecule of L-DOPA. In the brain, dopamine functions as a neurotransmitter—a chemical released by nerve cells to send signals to other nerve cells.

Psyche (psychology) In psychology, the psyche /ˈsaɪki/ is the totality of the human mind, conscious and unconscious. Psychology is the scientific or objective study of the psyche. The word has a long history of use in psychology and philosophy, dating back to ancient times, and represents one of the fundamental concepts for understanding human nature from a scientific point of view. The English word soul is sometimes used synonymously, especially in older texts.[1] The basic meaning of the Greek word ψυχή (psūkhē) was "life" in the sense of "breath", formed from the verb ψύχω (psukhō, "to blow").

Endocrinology Endocrinology is concerned with study of the biosynthesis, storage, chemistry, biochemical and physiological function of hormones and with the cells of the endocrine glands and tissues that secrete them. Various specializations exist, including behavioral endocrinology[1][2][3] and comparative endocrinology. The endocrine system consists of several glands, all in different parts of the body, that secrete hormones directly into the blood rather than into a duct system. Hormones have many different functions and modes of action; one hormone may have several effects on different target organs, and, conversely, one target organ may be affected by more than one hormone. In the original 1902 definition by Bayliss and Starling (see below), they specified that, to be classified as a hormone, a chemical must be produced by an organ, be released (in small amounts) into the blood, and be transported by the blood to a distant organ to exert its specific function. Chemical classes of hormones[edit]

Holmes and Rahe stress scale Development[edit] In 1967, psychiatrists Thomas Holmes and Richard Rahe examined the medical records of over 5,000 medical patients as a way to determine whether stressful events might cause illnesses. Patients were asked to tally a list of 43 life events based on a relative score. Oxytocin: the "love hormone" Oxytocin (/ˌɒksɨˈtoʊsɪn/; Oxt) is a mammalian neurohypophysial hormone. Produced by the hypothalamus and stored and secreted by the posterior pituitary gland, oxytocin acts primarily as a neuromodulator in the brain. Oxytocin plays an important role in the neuroanatomy of intimacy, specifically in sexual reproduction of both sexes, in particular during and after childbirth; its name comes from Greek ὀξύς, oksys "swift" and τόκος, tokos "birth." It is released in large amounts after distension of the cervix and uterus during labor, facilitating birth, maternal bonding, and, after stimulation of the nipples, lactation. Both childbirth and milk ejection result from positive feedback mechanisms.[3]

Saturday Morning Cartoons: Little Monster Welcome to Saturday Morning Cartoons, a segment where four artists take turns delighting you with their whimsy, facts and punchlines on Saturday mornings! Our esteemed cartoon critters are Cameron Glavin, Anna Bongiovanni, Megan Praz and Yao Xiao. Today’s cartoon is by Cameron! Are you following us on Facebook? Lobotomy Lobotomy (Greek: λοβός – lobos: "lobe (of brain)"; τομή – tomē: "cut/slice") is a neurosurgical procedure, a form of psychosurgery, also known as a leukotomy or leucotomy (from the Greek λευκός – leukos: "clear/white" and tome). It consists of cutting or scraping away most of the connections to and from the prefrontal cortex, the anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain. While the procedure, initially termed a leucotomy, has been controversial since its inception in 1935, it was a mainstream procedure for more than two decades, prescribed for psychiatric (and occasionally other) conditions – this despite general recognition of frequent and serious side-effects. Context[edit]

Defense physiology Defense physiology is a term used to refer to the symphony of body function (physiology) changes which occur in response to a stress or threat. When the body executes the “fight-or-flight" reaction or stress response, the nervous system initiates, coordinates and directs specific changes in how the body is functioning (physiology), preparing the body to deal with the threat. (See also General Adaptation Syndrome.) Definitions[edit] stress : As it pertains to the term defense physiology, the term stress refers to a perceived threat to the continued functioning of the body / life according to its current state. Life circumstances, though posing no immediate physical danger, could be perceived as a threat.

Amygdala: threat asessment and learning Human brain in the coronal orientation. Amygdalae are shown in dark red. Structure[edit] MRI coronal view of the left amygdala Anatomically, the amygdala[7] and more particularly, its central and medial nuclei,[8] have sometimes been classified as a part of the basal ganglia. Hemispheric specializations[edit]

Audre Lorde Thought of Self-Care as an "Act of Political Warfare." Audre Lorde in 1980. Photo by K. Kendall (Creative Commons) Self-care can be such a buzzword these days, but what's often not discussed are the race, gender, and class dynamics behind the concept. International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems The International Statistical Classification of Diseases (ICD) is the international "standard diagnostic tool for epidemiology, health management and clinical purposes".[1] The ICD is maintained by the World Health Organization, the directing and coordinating authority for health within the United Nations System.[2] The ICD is designed as a health care classification system, providing a system of diagnostic codes for classifying diseases, including nuanced classifications of a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances, and external causes of injury or disease. This system is designed to map health conditions to corresponding generic categories together with specific variations, assigning for these a designated code, up to six characters long. Thus, major categories are designed to include a set of similar diseases. The ICD is revised periodically and is currently in its tenth revision. Historical synopsis[edit]

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