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Inuit (pronounced /ˈɪnuːɪt/ or /ˈɪnjuːɪt/; Inuktitut: ᐃᓄᐃᑦ, "the people"[5]) are a group of culturally similar indigenous peoples inhabiting the Arctic regions of Greenland, Canada, and the United States.[6] Inuit is a plural noun; the singular is Inuk.[5] The Inuit languages are classified in the Eskimo-Aleut family.[7] The Inuit live throughout most of the Canadian Arctic and subarctic in the territory of Nunavut; "Nunavik" in the northern third of Quebec; "Nunatsiavut" and "NunatuKavut" in Labrador; and in various parts of the Northwest Territories, particularly around the Arctic Ocean. These areas are known in Inuktitut as the "Inuit Nunangat".[12][13] In the United States, Inupiat live on the North Slope in Alaska and on Little Diomede Island. Early history[edit] For pre-history, see: Paleo-Indians and Archaic periods (Canada) But, in the mid-1950s, researcher Henry B. Their first European contact was with the Vikings who settled in Greenland and explored the eastern Canadian coast. Related:  How do inuits survive in the harsh weathers nature throws at the

Ancient Pueblo Peoples Ancient Pueblo peoples or Ancestral Pueblo peoples were an ancient Native American culture centered on the present-day Four Corners area of the United States, comprising southern Utah, northeastern Arizona, northern New Mexico, and southwestern Colorado.[1] They lived in a range of structures, including pit houses, pueblos, and cliff dwellings designed so that they could lift entry ladders during enemy attacks, which provided security. Archaeologists referred to one of these cultural groups as the Anasazi, although the term is not preferred by contemporary Pueblo peoples.[2] The word Anaasází is Navajo for "Ancient Ones" or "Ancient Enemy".[3] Archaeologists still debate when this distinct culture emerged. The current consensus, based on terminology defined by the Pecos Classification, suggests their emergence around the 12th century BCE, during the archaeologically designated Early Basketmaker II Era. Etymology[edit] Geography[edit] Cultural characteristics[edit] Great Houses[edit] [edit]

Inuit Food Click on the names below to see their research... Austin, Jeff, Brett B., Mallory, Meagan, Chance In the past, the Inuit ate caribou, whale and seal meat. They had to hunt for their food. To hunt an animal underwater in the Arctic during the winter months, the hunter need to cut a hole in the ice and point his spear in the water and wait. Austin In the past, the Inuit hunted, caught or gathered all their food. Jeff The Inuit ate fish, caribou, whale and sometimes fox. Brett B. Now Inuit have their own stoves and use many of the same utensils as we do. Mallory In the past, if they wanted to cook the meat, the hunter had a tool that included a bow-drill and piece of driftwood. Meagan [top] Some of the tools the Inuit used in the past were ulus, spears and axes. Chance

Aleut people Aleut people ( i/ˈæli.uːt/) (Russian: Алеу́ты) are the indigenous people of the Aleutian Islands of Alaska, United States and Kamchatka Krai, Russia. Name[edit] According to Georgy A. The word Unangan (plural Unanga-x) evidently translates to "Seasider Language[edit] Aleut was written in the Cyrillic script beginning in 1829. Tribes[edit] Traditional Aleut dress The Aleut (Unangan) dialects and tribes: [9] Population and distribution[edit] Тhe Aleut people were distributed throughout the Aleutian Islands, the Shumagin Islands, and the far western part of the Alaska Peninsula, with an estimated population of around 25,000 before contact with Europeans.[10] In the 1820s, the Russian-American Company administered a large portion of the North Pacific during a Russian-led expansion of the fur trade. History[edit] After the arrival of Russian Orthodox missionaries in the late 18th century, many Aleuts became Christian. There was high demand for the furs that the Aleut provided from hunting. Art[edit]

Mound builder (people) Since the 19th century, the prevailing scholarly consensus has been that the mounds were constructed by indigenous peoples of the Americas. Sixteenth-century Spanish explorers made contact with natives living in a number of later Mississippian cities, described their cultures, and left artifacts.[2] By the time of United States westward expansion two hundred years later, Native Americans were generally not knowledgeable about the civilizations that produced the mounds. Research and study of these cultures and peoples has been based mostly on archaeology and anthropology. Name and culture[edit] At one time, the term "mound builder" was applied to the people believed to have constructed these earthworks. The best-known flat-topped pyramidal structure, which at over 100 feet (30 m) tall is the largest pre-Columbian earthwork north of Mexico, is Monks Mound at Cahokia Indian Mounds in present-day Collinsville, Illinois. Archaeological surveys[edit] Reports of early European explorers[edit]

The Inuits of the Arctic In the Arctic, under harsh cold and bare conditions, the Inuit people reside(d). To survive the -30 degrees C. the Inuit have adjusted their life in the way of clothing, shelter, etc. The native animals of the land and water are not just for food, but are used for clothing to keep. The caribou hide is the main material used, as the hollow hair traps air, which makes an excellent insulator. Layers of parkas (hood also lined with fur and covers most of face when drawn, so wearers breath helps to insulate), winter pants, and mittens helped keep the Inuit alive in the winter. Seal skin boots were used to produce "double boots." The most suitable shelter that is both dependable and convenient for the Inuit are igloos (iglus). The caribou move from one place to another on certain routes every year. The Inuit aquire many marquees as their culture and way of life is so different than other groups.

Deg Hit'an Deg Hit'an[pronunciation?] (also Deg Xit'an, Deg Hitan, Degexit'an, Kaiyuhkhotana[pronunciation?]) is a group of Yupikized Athabaskan peoples in Alaska. The Deg Hit'an are members of the federally recognized Alaska Native tribes of Anvik Village, Shageluk Native Village, and Holy Cross Village. Their neighbors are other Athabaskan-speaking and Yupik Eskimo peoples: Yup'ik (west and south), Holikachuk (north), Upper Kuskokwim (north and east), and Dena'ina (south).[2] Name[edit] The autonym for this group of Athabaskan is for people Deg Xit'an (local people) and for language Deg Xinag (local language).[3] Sometimes the Deg Xit'an or Deg Hit'an use for the language in English. References[edit]

Pueblo Pueblos are modern and old communities of Native Americans in the Southwestern United States of America. The first Spanish explorers of the Southwest used this term to describe the communities housed in apartment-like structures built of stone, adobe mud, and other local material. These structures were usually multi-storied buildings surrounding an open plaza. They were occupied by hundreds to thousands of Pueblo people, and were only accessible through a ladder able to be lowered only from the inside, thus preventing break-ins and unwanted guests. Etymology and usage[edit] The word pueblo is the Castilian word for "town", which comes from the Latin word populus meaning "people". On the central Spanish meseta the unit of settlement was and is the pueblo; that is to say, the large nucleated village surrounded by its own fields, with no outlying farms, separated from its neighbors by some considerable distance, sometimes as much as ten miles or so. Historical places[edit] See also[edit]

Innu Not to be confused with Inuit. Innu communities of Quebec and Labrador and the two Naskapi communities (Kawawachikamach and Natuashish) The Innu are the indigenous inhabitants of an area they refer to as Nitassinan (“Our Land”), which comprises most of the northeastern portions of the provinces of Quebec, Canada and some western portions of Labrador, Canada. Their language, Innu or Ilnu (popularly known as Montagnais),[1] is spoken throughout Nitassinan, with certain dialect differences. The Innu were allied with neighbouring Atikamekw, Maliseet and Algonquin against their traditional enemies, the Mi'kmaq and Iroquois. Montagnais, Naskapi or Innu[edit] The Innu people are frequently categorized into two groups, the Montagnais (French: “mountain people”, /ˌmɔːntənˈjeɪ/)[2] or Innu proper (Nehilaw and Ilniw - “people”), who live along the north shore of the Gulf of Saint Lawrence, in Quebec; and the less numerous Naskapi (Innu and Iyiyiw), who live farther north. History[edit] Culture[edit]

Apache Apache (/əˈpætʃiː/; French: [a.paʃ]) is the collective term for several culturally related groups of Native Americans in the United States originally from the Southwest United States. These indigenous peoples of North America speak a Southern Athabaskan (Apachean) language, which is related linguistically to the languages of Athabaskan speakers of Alaska and western Canada. The modern term Apache excludes the related Navajo people. Since the Navajo and the other Apache groups are clearly related through culture and language, they are all considered Apachean. The Apachean groups had little political unity; the major groups spoke seven different languages and developed distinct and competitive cultures. Some Apacheans have moved to large metropolitan areas. The Apachean tribes were historically very strong and strategic, opposing the Spanish and Mexican peoples for centuries. Contemporary Apache groups[edit] The following Apache tribes are federally recognized: Name and synonyms[edit]

Mi'kmaq Mi'kma'ki: Divided into seven districts Etymology[edit] The ethnonym has traditionally been spelled Micmac in English, but natives have used different spellings: Mi’kmaq (singular Mi’kmaw) by the people of Prince Edward Island and Nova Scotia, Miigmaq (Miigmao) by those of New Brunswick, Mi’gmaq by the Listuguj Council in Quebec, or Mìgmaq (Mìgmaw) in some native literature. Until the 1980s, "Micmac" remained the most common spelling in English. Lnu (the adjectival and singular noun, previously spelled "L'nu"; the plural is Lnúk, Lnu’k, Lnu’g, or Lnùg) is the term the Mi'kmaq use for themselves, their autonym, meaning "human being" or "the people".[16] Various explanations exist for the origin of the term Mi'kmaq. The definite article "the" suggests that "Mi'kmaq" is the undeclined form indicated by the initial letter "m". The Anishinaabe refer to the Mi'kmaq as Miijimaa(g), meaning "The Brother(s)/Ally(ies)", with the use of the nX prefix m-, opposed to the use of n1 prefix n- (i.e.

Navajo people The Navajo (Navajo: Diné or Naabeehó) of the Southwestern United States are the largest federally recognized tribe of the United States of America with 300,048 enrolled tribal members.[1][2] The Navajo Nation constitutes an independent governmental body, which manages the Navajo Indian reservation in the Four Corners area of the United States. The Navajo language is spoken throughout the region with most Navajo capable of speaking English as well. As of 2011, the states with the largest Navajo populations are Arizona (140,263), and New Mexico (108,306). Over three-quarters of the Navajo population reside in these two states.[3] History[edit] Early history[edit] 19th-century hogan Navajo spinning and weaving The Navajo are speakers of a Na-Dené Southern Athabaskan languages known as Diné bizaad (lit. New Mexico territory[edit] The Navajo came into official contact with the United States of America in 1846, when General Stephen W. In 1861, Brigadier-General James H. The Long Walk[edit]