The Fermi Paradox - Wait But Why PDF: We made a fancy PDF of this post for printing and offline viewing. Buy it here. (Or see a preview.) Everyone feels something when they’re in a really good starry place on a really good starry night and they look up and see this: Some people stick with the traditional, feeling struck by the epic beauty or blown away by the insane scale of the universe. Physicist Enrico Fermi felt something too—”Where is everybody?” A really starry sky seems vast—but all we’re looking at is our very local neighborhood. Galaxy image: Nick Risinger When confronted with the topic of stars and galaxies, a question that tantalizes most humans is, “Is there other intelligent life out there?” As many stars as there are in our galaxy (100 – 400 billion), there are roughly an equal number of galaxies in the observable universe—so for every star in the colossal Milky Way, there’s a whole galaxy out there. So there are 100 Earth-like planets for every grain of sand in the world. But it hasn’t. Where is everybody?
100,000 Stars Theory of everything A theory of everything (ToE) or final theory, ultimate theory, or master theory is a hypothetical single, all-encompassing, coherent theoretical framework of physics that fully explains and links together all physical aspects of the universe.:6 Finding a ToE is one of the major unsolved problems in physics. Over the past few centuries, two theoretical frameworks have been developed that, as a whole, most closely resemble a ToE. The two theories upon which all modern physics rests are general relativity (GR) and quantum field theory (QFT). Through years of research, physicists have experimentally confirmed with tremendous accuracy virtually every prediction made by these two theories when in their appropriate domains of applicability. Over the past few decades, a single explanatory framework, called "string theory", has emerged that may turn out to be the ultimate theory of the universe. Historical antecedents From ancient Greece to Einstein Modern physics 
Physicists Discover Geometry Underlying Particle Physics Physicists have discovered a jewel-like geometric object that dramatically simplifies calculations of particle interactions and challenges the notion that space and time are fundamental components of reality. “This is completely new and very much simpler than anything that has been done before,” said Andrew Hodges, a mathematical physicist at Oxford University who has been following the work. The revelation that particle interactions, the most basic events in nature, may be consequences of geometry significantly advances a decades-long effort to reformulate quantum field theory, the body of laws describing elementary particles and their interactions. Interactions that were previously calculated with mathematical formulas thousands of terms long can now be described by computing the volume of the corresponding jewel-like “amplituhedron,” which yields an equivalent one-term expression. Locality is the notion that particles can interact only from adjoining positions in space and time.
NASA Releases New High-Definition View of Iconic ‘Pillars of Creation’ Photo New view of the Pillars of Creation, visible light. NASA, ESA/Hubble and the Hubble Heritage Team. New view of the Pillars of Creation, visible light, detail. New view of the Pillars of Creation, infrared light. 2015 v. 1995 ‘Pillars of Creation’ comparison. One of the most iconic images ever produced by NASA is the “Pillars of Creation” photograph taken by Hubble Space Telescope in 1995. Now Hubble has revisited the famous pillars, capturing the multi-coloured glow of gas clouds, wispy tendrils of dark cosmic dust, and the rust-coloured elephants’ trunks with the newer Wide Field Camera 3, installed in 2009. In addition, NASA says that although the original photograph was titled Pillars of Creation, the newer imagery suggests the columns might also contain a fair amount of destruction: Although the original image was dubbed the “Pillars of Creation”, this new image hints that they are also pillars of destruction.
The sounds of English and the International Phonetic Alphabet © Tomasz P. Szynalski, Antimoon.com This chart contains all the sounds (phonemes) used in the English language. For each sound, it gives: The symbol from the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA), as used in phonetic transcriptions in modern dictionaries for English learners — that is, in A. To print the chart, use the printable PDF version. Does this chart list all the sounds that you can hear in British and American English? No. For example, this page does not list the regular t (heard in this pronunciation of letter) and the flap t (heard in this one) with separate symbols. So this page actually lists phonemes (groups of sounds), not individual sounds. Take the phoneme p in the above chart. Typing the phonetic symbols You won’t find phonetic symbols on your computer’s keyboard. You can use my free IPA phonetic keyboard at ipa.typeit.org. You can also use the ASCII Phonetic Alphabet, which represents IPA symbols with “normal” characters that you can type on your keyboard.
Free Online Student Organizer | Schoolbinder Eliezer Yudkowsky on Bayes and science: what? By Massimo Pigliucci It is no secret that my already normally skeptical baloney detector now jumps to deep orange alert any time I hear the word “singularity.” I was not too impressed with David Chalmers’ lecture about it at the City University of New York Graduate Center, and I debated singularitarian guru Eliezer Yudkowsky on BloggingHeadsTV on the same topic. My later encounters with that particular group of techno-optimists and futurists have not improved my opinion of the whole shebang a bit. Still, in the spirit of open inquiry and of keeping myself on my own toes, I devoted about an hour to reading three not-so-recent posts by Yudkowsky on the theme of quantum mechanics, science and Bayesianism (the philosophy of science related to Bayesian statistics). I actually intended to read only one of Yudkowsky’s posts, intriguingly entitled “The Dilemma: Science or Bayes?” But I was disappointed. Now, I should hasten to say that I don’t really have a dog in this fight. So there.
Doron Swade - Computing History Doron Swade An academic who masterminded an 18-year project to recreate a 19th Century computer, a dedicated nurse and an 84-year old volunteer are among Kingstonians rewarded in the UK 2009 New Year's Honours List. Dr Doron Swade, 64, is a leading academic in computer history and a world renowned expert on the work of English mathematician Charles Babbage and has been awarded an MBE for services to the history of computing. Dr Swade, a former curator at the London Science Museum, said: “I am hugely flattered and very, very grateful. “I've always said honours and acknowledgements are the result of good work and I just try to do good work.” Dr Swade masterminded a project to build a working replica of one of Babbage’s ‘calculating engines’ from the original 19th century plans and negotiated the acquisition of rare computers including a Russian Cold War supercomputer and the last working totalisator in the country for the National Computer Collection. Dr. Doron has curated many exhibitions.