French materialism Prominent French materialists of the 18th century include: Emergentism In philosophy, emergentism is the belief in emergence, particularly as it involves consciousness and the philosophy of mind, and as it contrasts (or not) with reductionism. A property of a system is said to be emergent if it is in some sense more than the "sum" of the properties of the system's parts. An emergent property is said to be dependent on some more basic properties (and their relationships and configuration), so that it can have no separate existence. However, a degree of independence is also asserted of emergent properties, so that they are not identical to, or reducible to, or predictable from, or deducible from their bases. The different ways in which the independence requirement can be satisfied lead to variant types of emergence. Forms of emergentism Other varieties see mind or consciousness as specifically and anomalously requiring emergentist explanation, and therefore constitute a family of positions in the philosophy of mind. Relationship to vitalism C. C.
Science, technology and society Content Science, technology and society studies can include the following areas of concentration: biotechnology, environmental sustainability, information technology. As an interdisciplinary study, science, technology, and society brings together research findings from anthropology, communications, sociology, politology, computer science, engineering. History STS is a new and expanding subject. Early developments The key disciplinary components of STS took shape independently, beginning in the 1960s, and developed in isolation from each other well into the 1980s, although Ludwik Fleck's monograph (1935) Genesis and Development of a Scientific Fact anticipated many of STS's key themes: Science studies, a branch of the sociology of scientific knowledge that places scientific controversies in their social context.History of technology, that examines technology in its social and historical context. The "turn to technology" (and beyond) Professional associations
Economic materialism This article addresses materialism in the economic sense of the word. For information on the philosophical and scientific meanings, see materialism. Definition Consumer research typically looks at materialism in two ways. One as a collection of personality traits and one as an enduring belief or value. Materialism as a personality trait Belk's conceptualization of materialism includes three original personality traits. Nongenerosity – an unwillingness to give or share possession with others.Envy – desire for other people's possessions.Possessiveness – concern about loss of possessions and a desire for the greater control of ownership. Materialism as a value Acquisition centrality is when acquiring material possession functions as a central life goal with the belief that possessions are the key to happiness and that success can be judged by people's material wealth. Growing materialism in America Materialism and happiness Criticism See also
Non-reductive physicalism Reza Negarestani After being associated with the philosophical movement of Speculative Realism for several years, Negarestani is currently lecturing and writing about rationalist universalism beginning with the evolution of the modern system of knowledge and advancing toward contemporary philosophies of rationalism, their procedures as well as their demands for special forms of human conduct. Since his relocation to the United States of America from Asia, Negarestani has given several lectures, a list of which includes: Negarestani's blog includes his shorter texts and the summary of his latest projects.
Historical materialism Historical materialism is a methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history first articulated by Karl Marx (1818–1883) as the materialist conception of history. It is a theory of socioeconomic development according to which changes in material conditions (technology and productive capacity) are the primary influence on how society and the economy are organised. Historical materialism looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life. Social classes and the relationship between them, along with the political structures and ways of thinking in society, are founded on and reflect contemporary economic activity. Since Marx's time, the theory has been modified and expanded by Marxist writers. Key ideas "In the Marxian view, human history is like a river. — Hubert Kay, LIFE Magazine, 1948 Historical materialism can be seen to rest on the following principles: Marx's materialism
Idealism The 20th-century British scientist Sir James Jeans wrote that "the Universe begins to look more like a great thought than like a great machine." Beginning with Immanuel Kant, German idealists such as G. W. F. Definitions Any philosophy that assigns crucial importance to the ideal or spiritual realm in its account of human existence may be termed "idealist". Subjective idealists like George Berkeley are anti-realists in terms of a mind-independent world, whereas transcendental idealists like Immanuel Kant are strong skeptics of such a world, affirming epistemological and not metaphysical idealism. Classical idealism Monistic idealism holds that consciousness, not matter, is the ground of all being. Anaxagoras (480 BC) was known as "Nous" ("Mind") because he taught that "all things" were created by Mind, that Mind held the cosmos together and gave human beings a connection to the cosmos or a pathway to the divine. Many religious philosophies are specifically idealist. therefore;
Quentin Meillassoux Quentin Meillassoux (French: [mɛjasu]; born 1967) is a French philosopher. He teaches at the École Normale Supérieure, but he will be moving in Fall 2012 to a new position at the Université de Paris 1 Panthéon Sorbonne. He is the son of the anthropologist Claude Meillassoux. Meillassoux is a former student of the philosophers Bernard Bourgeois and Alain Badiou, who has written that Meillassoux's first book Après la finitude (2006) introduces an entirely new option into modern philosophy, different from Kant's three alternatives of criticism, scepticism, and dogmatism. The book was translated into English by philosopher Ray Brassier. Meillassoux is associated with the Speculative Realism movement. Meillassoux tries to show that the agnostic scepticism of those who doubt the reality of cause and effect must be transformed into a radical certainty that there is no such thing as causal necessity at all. Bibliography Books Articles Potentiality and virtuality, in Collapse, vol.
Dialectical materialism Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature, based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, and developed largely in Russia and the Soviet Union. It was inspired by dialectic and materialist philosophical traditions. The main idea of dialectical materialism lies in the concept of the evolution of the natural world and the emergence of new qualities of being at new stages of evolution. As Z. A. Jordan notes, "Engels made constant use of the metaphysical insight that the higher level of existence emerges from and has its roots in the lower; that the higher level constitutes a new order of being with its irreducible laws; and that this process of evolutionary advance is governed by laws of development which reflect basic properties of 'matter in motion as a whole' The term The exact term was not used by Marx in any of his works, and controversy exists regarding the relationship between dialectics, ontology, and nature.
Neutral monism Neutral monism, in philosophy, is the metaphysical view that the mental and the physical are two ways of organizing or describing the same elements, which are themselves "neutral", that is, neither physical nor mental. This view denies that the mental and the physical are two fundamentally different things. Rather, neutral monism claims the universe consists of only one kind of stuff, in the form of neutral elements that are in themselves neither mental nor physical; these neutral elements might have the properties of color and shape, just as we experience those properties, but these shaped and colored elements do not exist in a mind (considered as a substantial entity, whether dualistically or physicalistically); they exist on their own. History A diagram with neutral monism compared to Cartesian dualism, physicalism and idealism. Some of the first views of the neutral monism position about the mind–body relationship in philosophy can be attributed to C. William James
Warwick | Philosophy | Academic Staff | Miguel Beistegui Contact Room S 2.56, Department of Philosophy, The University of Warwick, Coventry CV4 7AL Curriculum Vitae Research Profile I was educated in France (BA, MA in Philosophy at the Sorbonne), the US (Ph.D., Loyola University of Chicago), and Germany (Postdoc, Hegel-Archiv, Bochum). I specialise in 20th century German and French philosophy, and have published books and articles in the following areas: ontology, metaphysics, aesthetics, ethics and politics. In the last three years, I have been engaged in the following projects: 1. 2. 3. I am also the Principal Investigator for a joint research project with Dr. I welcome Ph.D. projects by students interested in the philosophy of nature, ontology, philosophy and literature (especially metaphor), philosophy and art, space and time, and the anthropology, ethics and politics of desire, especially in connection with Spinoza, 20th century French Philosophy, phenomenology, and aspects of German idealism. Media/Audio conferences: Selected Publications:
Cultural materialism (anthropology) Cultural materialism is an anthropological research orientation first introduced by Marvin Harris in his 1968 book The Rise of Anthropological Theory, as a theoretical paradigm and research strategy. It is said to be the most enduring achievement of that work. Harris subsequently developed a full elaboration and defense of the paradigm in his 1979 book Cultural Materialism. To Harris, cultural materialism "is based on the simple premise that human social life is a response to the practical problems of earthly existence". Harris's concept of cultural materialism was influenced by the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, yet is a materialism distinct from Marxist dialectical materialism, as well as from philosophical materialism. Thomas Malthus's work encouraged Harris to consider reproduction of equal importance to production. Cultural materialism is a scientific research strategy and as such utilizes the scientific method. Jump up ^ Harris, Marvin (2001a.
Functionalism (philosophy of mind) Functionalism is a theory of the mind in contemporary philosophy, developed largely as an alternative to both the identity theory of mind and behaviourism. Its core idea is that mental states (beliefs, desires, being in pain, etc.) are constituted solely by their functional role – that is, they are causal relations to other mental states, sensory inputs, and behavioral outputs. Functionalism is a theoretical level between the physical implementation and behavioral output. Therefore, it is different from its predecessors of Cartesian dualism (advocating independent mental and physical substances) and Skinnerian behaviourism and physicalism (declaring only physical substances) because it is only concerned with the effective functions of the brain, through its organization or its "software programs". While functionalism has its advantages, there have been several arguments against it, claiming that it is an insufficient account of the mind.