French materialism Prominent French materialists of the 18th century include: Economic materialism This article addresses materialism in the economic sense of the word. For information on the philosophical and scientific meanings, see materialism. Definition Consumer research typically looks at materialism in two ways. One as a collection of personality traits and one as an enduring belief or value. Materialism as a personality trait Belk's conceptualization of materialism includes three original personality traits. Nongenerosity – an unwillingness to give or share possession with others.Envy – desire for other people's possessions.Possessiveness – concern about loss of possessions and a desire for the greater control of ownership. Materialism as a value Acquisition centrality is when acquiring material possession functions as a central life goal with the belief that possessions are the key to happiness and that success can be judged by people's material wealth. Growing materialism in America Materialism and happiness Criticism See also
Historical materialism Historical materialism is a methodological approach to the study of society, economics, and history first articulated by Karl Marx (1818–1883) as the materialist conception of history. It is a theory of socioeconomic development according to which changes in material conditions (technology and productive capacity) are the primary influence on how society and the economy are organised. Historical materialism looks for the causes of developments and changes in human society in the means by which humans collectively produce the necessities of life. Social classes and the relationship between them, along with the political structures and ways of thinking in society, are founded on and reflect contemporary economic activity. Since Marx's time, the theory has been modified and expanded by Marxist writers. Key ideas "In the Marxian view, human history is like a river. — Hubert Kay, LIFE Magazine, 1948 Historical materialism can be seen to rest on the following principles: Marx's materialism
Dialectical materialism Dialectical materialism (sometimes abbreviated diamat) is a philosophy of science and nature, based on the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, and developed largely in Russia and the Soviet Union. It was inspired by dialectic and materialist philosophical traditions. The main idea of dialectical materialism lies in the concept of the evolution of the natural world and the emergence of new qualities of being at new stages of evolution. As Z. A. Jordan notes, "Engels made constant use of the metaphysical insight that the higher level of existence emerges from and has its roots in the lower; that the higher level constitutes a new order of being with its irreducible laws; and that this process of evolutionary advance is governed by laws of development which reflect basic properties of 'matter in motion as a whole' The term The exact term was not used by Marx in any of his works, and controversy exists regarding the relationship between dialectics, ontology, and nature.
Cultural materialism (anthropology) Cultural materialism is an anthropological research orientation first introduced by Marvin Harris in his 1968 book The Rise of Anthropological Theory, as a theoretical paradigm and research strategy. It is said to be the most enduring achievement of that work. Harris subsequently developed a full elaboration and defense of the paradigm in his 1979 book Cultural Materialism. To Harris, cultural materialism "is based on the simple premise that human social life is a response to the practical problems of earthly existence". Harris's concept of cultural materialism was influenced by the writings of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels, yet is a materialism distinct from Marxist dialectical materialism, as well as from philosophical materialism. Thomas Malthus's work encouraged Harris to consider reproduction of equal importance to production. Cultural materialism is a scientific research strategy and as such utilizes the scientific method. Jump up ^ Harris, Marvin (2001a.
Critical realism (philosophy of the social sciences) Critical realism is a philosophical approach associated with Roy Bhaskar that combines a general philosophy of science (transcendental realism) with a philosophy of social science (critical naturalism) to describe an interface between the natural and social worlds. Bhaskar developed a general philosophy of science that he described as transcendental realism, and a special philosophy of the human sciences that he called critical naturalism. The two terms were combined by other authors to form the umbrella term critical realism. Transcendental realism attempts to establish that in order for scientific investigation to take place, the object of that investigation must have real, manipulable, internal mechanisms that can be actualised to produce particular outcomes. The implication of this is that science should be understood as an ongoing process in which scientists improve the concepts they use to understand the mechanisms that they study. Bhaskar and American Critical Realism
Christian materialism Christian materialism is the combination of Christian theology with the ideas of materialism, which places a high value on material things. Historical background This tendency of spiritualization, Ratzinger said, is not the message of Jesus Christ. Josemaría Escrivá and Opus Dei The most visible use of the term is found in the writings of Josemaría Escrivá, a Spanish Roman Catholic saint of the twentieth century, who said that all temporal realities have a sanctifying power and Christians can find God in the most ordinary material things. Escriva criticized those who "have tried to present the Christian way of life as something exclusively spiritual, proper to pure, extraordinary people, who remain aloof from the contemptible things of this world, or at most tolerate them as something necessarily attached to the spirit, while we live on this earth. Instead, he affirmed the "high value of the material." There is nothing that is outside of the concern of Christ. See also
Subjective idealism George Berkeley is credited with the development of subjective idealism. Subjective idealism is a fusion of phenomenalism or empiricism, which confers special status upon the immediately perceived, with idealism, which confers special status upon the mental. Idealism denies the knowability or existence of the non-mental, while phenomenalism serves to restrict the mental to the empirical. Subjective idealism thus identifies its mental reality with the world of ordinary experience, rather than appealing to the unitary world-spirit of pantheism or absolute idealism. The earliest thinkers identifiable as subjective idealists were certain members of the Yogācāra school of Indian Buddhism, who reduced the world of experience to a stream of subjective perceptions. History Thinkers such as Plato, Plotinus and Augustine of Hippo anticipated idealism's antimaterialism with their views of the inferior or derivative reality of matter. Fiction See also
Material feminism Material feminism highlights capitalism and patriarchy as central in understanding women’s oppression. The theory centers on social change rather than seeking transformation within the capitalist system. Jennifer Wicke, defines Materialist Feminism as "a feminism that insists on examining the material conditions under which social arrangements, including those of gender hierarchy, develop... materialist feminism avoids seeing this gender hierarchy as the effect of a singular... patriarchy and instead gauges the web of social and psychic relations that make up a material, historical moment. History The term materialist feminism emerged in the late 1970s and is associated with key thinkers, such as Rosemary Hennessy, Stevi Jackson and Christine Delphy. Material Feminism partly originated from the work of French feminists, particularly Christine Delphy. The Grand Domestic Revolution by Dolores Hayden is a reference. Relationship to Marxist feminism See also
Rational egoism Philosophy Rational egoism is discussed by the nineteenth-century English philosopher Henry Sidgwick in The Methods of Ethics. A method of ethics is "any rational procedure by which we determine what individual human beings 'ought' – or what it is 'right' for them – to do, or seek to realize by voluntary action". Sidgwick considers three such procedures, namely, rational egoism, dogmatic intuitionism, and utilitarianism. Rational egoism is the view that, if rational, "an agent regards quantity of consequent pleasure and pain to himself alone important in choosing between alternatives of action; and seeks always the greatest attainable surplus of pleasure over pain". Sidgwick found it difficult to find any persuasive reason for preferring rational egoism over utilitarianism. Criticism Ayn Rand Her book The Virtue of Selfishness (1964) explains the concept of rational egoism in depth. Conversely, Rand was sharply critical of the ethical doctrine of altruism: