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Quantum electrodynamics

Quantum electrodynamics
In particle physics, quantum electrodynamics (QED) is the relativistic quantum field theory of electrodynamics. In essence, it describes how light and matter interact and is the first theory where full agreement between quantum mechanics and special relativity is achieved. QED mathematically describes all phenomena involving electrically charged particles interacting by means of exchange of photons and represents the quantum counterpart of classical electromagnetism giving a complete account of matter and light interaction. History[edit] The first formulation of a quantum theory describing radiation and matter interaction is attributed to British scientist Paul Dirac, who (during the 1920s) was first able to compute the coefficient of spontaneous emission of an atom.[2] Difficulties with the theory increased through the end of 1940. QED has served as the model and template for all subsequent quantum field theories. Feynman's view of quantum electrodynamics[edit] Introduction[edit] or Related:  Leseliste

Photoelectric effect The photoelectric effect is the observation that many metals emit electrons when light shines upon them. Electrons emitted in this manner may be called photoelectrons. According to classical electromagnetic theory, this effect can be attributed to the transfer of energy from the light to an electron in the metal. From this perspective, an alteration in either the amplitude or wavelength of light would induce changes in the rate of emission of electrons from the metal. Instead, as it turns out, electrons are only dislodged by the photoelectric effect if light reaches or exceeds a threshold frequency, below which no electrons can be emitted from the metal regardless of the amplitude and temporal length of exposure of light. In 1887, Heinrich Hertz[2][3] discovered that electrodes illuminated with ultraviolet light create electric sparks more easily. The photoelectric effect requires photons with energies from a few electronvolts to over 1 MeV in elements with a high atomic number. where

Vector From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia Vector may refer to: In mathematics and physics[edit] In computer science[edit] In biology[edit] In business[edit] In entertainment[edit] Fictional characters and elements[edit] Other uses[edit] See also[edit] Quantum chromodynamics In theoretical physics, quantum chromodynamics (QCD) is a theory of strong interactions, a fundamental force describing the interactions between quarks and gluons which make up hadrons such as the proton, neutron and pion. QCD is a type of quantum field theory called a non-abelian gauge theory with symmetry group SU(3). The QCD analog of electric charge is a property called 'color'. Gluons are the force carrier of the theory, like photons are for the electromagnetic force quantum electrodynamics. The theory is an important part of the Standard Model of particle physics. QCD enjoys two peculiar properties: Confinement, which means that the force between quarks does not diminish as they are separated. There is no known phase-transition line separating these two properties; confinement is dominant in low-energy scales but, as energy increases, asymptotic freedom becomes dominant. Terminology[edit] History[edit] Three identical quarks cannot form an antisymmetric S-state. Theory[edit]

Electric field Electric field lines emanating from a point positive electric charge suspended over an infinite sheet of conducting material. Qualitative description[edit] An electric field that changes with time, such as due to the motion of charged particles producing the field, influences the local magnetic field. That is: the electric and magnetic fields are not separate phenomena; what one observer perceives as an electric field, another observer in a different frame of reference perceives as a mixture of electric and magnetic fields. For this reason, one speaks of "electromagnetism" or "electromagnetic fields". In quantum electrodynamics, disturbances in the electromagnetic fields are called photons. Definition[edit] Electric Field[edit] Consider a point charge q with position (x,y,z). Notice that the magnitude of the electric field has dimensions of Force/Charge. Superposition[edit] Array of discrete point charges[edit] Electric fields satisfy the superposition principle. Continuum of charges[edit]

Quantum Diaries We’ve been discussing the Higgs (its interactions, its role in particle mass, and its vacuum expectation value) as part of our ongoing series on understanding the Standard Model with Feynman diagrams. Now I’d like to take a post to discuss a very subtle feature of the Standard Model: its chiral structure and the meaning of “mass.” This post is a little bit different in character from the others, but it goes over some very subtle features of particle physics and I would really like to explain them carefully because they’re important for understanding the entire scaffolding of the Standard Model. My goal is to explain the sense in which the Standard Model is “chiral” and what that means. Helicity Fact: every matter particle (electrons, quarks, etc.) is spinning, i.e. each matter particle carries some intrinsic angular momentum. Let me make the caveat that this spin is an inherently quantum mechanical property of fundamental particles! This is our spinning particle. Sounds good? Chirality

Dimensional analysis Dimensional analysis is routinely used as a check on the plausibility of derived equations and computations. It is also used to categorize types of physical quantities and units based on their relationship to or dependence on other units. Great principle of similitude[edit] The basic principle of dimensional analysis was known to Isaac Newton (1686) who referred to it as the "Great Principle of Similitude".[1] James Clerk Maxwell played a major role in establishing modern use of dimensional analysis by distinguishing mass, length, and time as fundamental units, while referring to other units as derived.[2] The 19th-century French mathematician Joseph Fourier made important contributions[3] based on the idea that physical laws like F = ma should be independent of the units employed to measure the physical variables. Definition[edit] The term dimension is more abstract than scale unit: mass is a dimension, while kilograms are a scale unit (choice of standard) in the mass dimension.

On Pauli and the Interconnectedness of all things | Jon Butterworth | Life & Physics | Science There's been some argument on twitter and elsewhere as to whether Brian Cox made a mistake in his excellent "Night with the Stars" earlier this year. Apart from some below-the-line nonsense in blog comments, it's an interesting physics discussion and it made me refine my own thoughts about quantum mechanics a bit. So I feel like writing about it. However, this article is going to be more aimed at physicists than usual, so if I assume too much prior knowledge, please accept my apologies and come back for the next one. Here's the clip in contention: The controversy is about whether all the electrons in the universe really move energy levels imperceptibly when Brian heats the diamond, whether it's instantaneous, and whether it is anything to do with the Pauli exclusion principle. Brian's main response to criticism so far has been to point to these lecture notes by his co-author Jeff Forshaw. And here's a response from Sean Carroll (which also links to some previous blogs). So...

Tests of special relativity Special relativity is a physical theory that plays a fundamental role in the description of all physical phenomena, as long as gravitation is not significant. Many experiments played (and still play) an important role in its development and justification. The strength of the theory lies in its unique ability to correctly predict to high precision the outcome of an extremely diverse range of experiments. Repeats of many of those experiments are still being conducted with steadily increased precision, with modern experiments focusing on effects such as at the Planck scale and in the neutrino sector. Their results are consistent with the predictions of special relativity. Collections of various tests were given by Jakob Laub,[1] Zhang,[2] Mattingly,[3] Clifford Will,[4] and Roberts/Schleif.[5] Special relativity is restricted to flat spacetime, i.e., to all phenomena without significant influence of gravitation. Experiments paving the way to relativity[edit] First-order experiments[edit]

Quantum Physics made simple Light-time correction Light-time correction is a displacement in the apparent position of a celestial object from its true position (or geometric position) caused by the object's motion during the time it takes its light to reach an observer. Light-time correction occurs in principle during the observation of any moving object, because the speed of light is finite. The magnitude and direction of the displacement in position depends upon the distance of the object from the observer and the motion of the object, and is measured at the instant at which the object's light reaches the observer. Light-time correction can be applied to any object whose distance and motion are known. Calculation[edit] A calculation of light-time correction usually involves an iterative process. Discovery[edit] The effect of the finite speed of light on observations of celestial objects was first recognised by Ole Rømer in 1675, during a series of observations of eclipses of the moons of Jupiter. References[edit] P.

Tensor Cauchy stress tensor, a second-order tensor. The tensor's components, in a three-dimensional Cartesian coordinate system, form the matrix whose columns are the stresses (forces per unit area) acting on the e1, e2, and e3 faces of the cube. Tensors are used to represent correspondences between sets of geometric vectors. For example, the Cauchy stress tensor T takes a direction v as input and produces the stress T(v) on the surface normal to this vector for output thus expressing a relationship between these two vectors, shown in the figure (right). Because they express a relationship between vectors, tensors themselves must be independent of a particular choice of coordinate system. Tensors are important in physics because they provide a concise mathematical framework for formulating and solving physics problems in areas such as elasticity, fluid mechanics, and general relativity. Definition[edit] There are several approaches to defining tensors. As multidimensional arrays[edit] as, .

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