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The commons

The commons
This article is about the term "commons" in political economics. It is not to be confused with common land. The commons is the cultural and natural resources accessible to all members of a society, including natural materials such as air, water, and a habitable earth. These resources are held in common, not owned privately. Definition and modern use[edit] The definition from the Digital Library of the Commons is; "the commons is a general term for shared resources in which each stakeholder has an equal interest".[1] The term "commons" derives from the traditional English legal term for common land, which are also known as "commons", and was popularised in the modern sense as a shared resource term by the ecologist Garrett Hardin in an influential 1968 article called The Tragedy of the Commons. Types of commons[edit] Environmental[edit] The examples below illustrate types of environmental commons. European land use[edit] Main article: Common land Mongolian grasslands[edit] Digital commons[edit] Related:  Banks & Money & Uni's unordered

World debt comparison: The global debt clock Tragedy of the commons The tragedy of the commons concept is often cited in connection with sustainable development, meshing economic growth and environmental protection, as well as in the debate over global warming. It has also been used in analyzing behavior in the fields of economics, evolutionary psychology, anthropology, game theory, politics, taxation, and sociology. However the concept, as originally developed, has also received criticism for not taking into account the many other factors operating to enforce or agree on regulation in this scenario. Lloyd's pamphlet[edit] In 1833, the English economist William Forster Lloyd published a pamphlet which included an example of herders sharing a common parcel of land on which they are each entitled to let their cows graze. Garrett Hardin's article[edit] The Universal Declaration of Human Rights describes the family as the natural and fundamental unit of society. [edit] As a metaphor, the tragedy of the commons should not be taken too literally. See also[edit]

NRC: Niemand regeert - Op naar de volgende spannende bijna-beslissing De Nederlandse overheid geeft al jaren niet meer om regeren. Toch blijven veel mensen rekenen op de verzorgende en beschermende staat. Maar de staat kan zo veel niet meer. Het resultaat is een vrij grimmige verwarring. Doen ze het of doen ze het niet? De techniek van tv-soapschrijvers om iedere aflevering vlak voor een hoogtepunt af te kappen wint terrein in de Nederlandse politiek. Op naar de volgende spannende bijna-beslissing. We moeten er maar aan wennen. Ja, er worden wel knopen doorgehakt. De A4 tussen Delft en Schiedam wordt aangelegd. Minister Plasterk zet de fusietoets voor scholen door. Dezelfde minister zei verder dat universiteiten en hbo-opleidingen moeten samengaan. Een stelselwijziging is wel vaker het model waarmee de Nederlandse beleidsmakers reageren op uitdagingen. Het kabinet knipte nog een knoop door. Wie zich even indacht hoe een visionaire troonrede moest klinken zag in dat dit een onbegaanbare weg was. Knopen doorhakken is weer een ander verhaal. En nu?

Enclosure Decaying hedges mark the lines of the straight field boundaries created by the 1768 Parliamentary Act of Enclosure of Boldron Moor, County Durham. In English social and economic history, enclosure or inclosure[1] is the process which ends traditional rights such as mowing meadows for hay, or grazing livestock on common land formerly held in the open field system. Once enclosed, these uses of the land become restricted to the owner, and it ceases to be land for commons. In England and Wales the term is also used for the process that ended the ancient system of arable farming in open fields. Enclosure could be accomplished by buying the ground rights and all common rights to accomplish exclusive rights of use, which increased the value of the land. W. Enclosure is considered one of the causes of the British Agricultural Revolution. Early History[edit] Enclosure of manorial common land was authorized by the Statute of Merton (1235) and the Statute of Westminster (1285). Enclosure riots[edit]

Marc Chavannes – Niemand regeert Directeuren van semi-publieke instellingen die ‘marktconform’ beloond worden, de invoering van de OV-chipkaart die gepaard gaat met enorme kosten en een verregaande inbreuk op de privacy, de verkoop van een energieproducent aan een buitenlandse energiereus die het niet zo nauw neemt met milieudoelstellingen: het zijn stuk voor stuk voorbeelden van de afstand die de afgelopen decennia geschapen is tussen de politiek en zaken die de burger meer aangaan dan de aankoop van een rolletje drop. Het is het beeld van een land dat grossiert in toezichtsorganen die (half)vermarkte sectoren zoals openbaar vervoer en gezondheidszorg in de gaten moeten houden, van adviesbureaus en bestuurslagen. Het is het beeld van een land in een staat van permanent zelfonderzoek, waar besluitvorming slechts een stopwoord van zoekende bewindslieden is. Verantwoordelijkheid is er een begrip dat in een kluwen van lijnen is opgeknipt tot oneindig kleine en onherkenbare stukjes.

Common-pool resource The use of many common-pool resources, if managed carefully, can be extended because the resource system forms a positive feedback loop, where the stock variable continually regenerates the fringe variable as long as the stock variable is not compromised, providing an optimum amount of consumption. However, consumption exceeding the fringe value reduces the stock variable, which in turn decreases the flow variable. If the stock variable is allowed to regenerate then the fringe and flow variables may also recover to initial levels, but in many cases the loss is irreparable. Common property regime[edit] Common property regimes arise when appropriators acting independently threaten the total net benefit from common-pool resource. In common property regimes, access to the resource is not free, and common-pool resources are not public goods. Adaptive governance[edit] The management of common-pool resources is highly dependent upon the type of resource involved. Criticisms[edit] See also[edit]

US banks profiting off welfare programs' 'US banks profiting off welfare programs' Sun Nov 6, 2011 4:0PM An exclusive interview with Amy Fern, organizer for the Occupy Columbus movement An “Occupy” movement organizer says that US banks are making money from state welfare programs as they administer and collect heavy fees for those services. Press TV has conducted an interview with Amy Fern, organizer for the Occupy Columbus movement, to share her opinion on this issue. Following is the text of the interview: Press TV: What is the general mood where you are compared to other major cities? Fern: It's very upbeat and peaceful here. Press TV: As an organizer, what problems have you been facing and perhaps will face when it comes to these protests? Fern: Some of the current issues that our Occupy movement is facing right now is with winter coming, and there's issues with that in our stay here. Press TV: How do you see the progress of this movement in general across the United States? Press TV: You've pointed to causing awareness.

Category:Commons = What we share. Creations of both nature and society that belong to all of us equally, and should be maintained for future generations. The Commons has the potential to replace the commodity as the determining form of re-/producing societal living conditions. This new section exclusively devoted to the emergence of Commons in various fields. Most commons fall into three general categories – gifts of nature, material creations, and intangible creations (i.e. the Three Commons. [2]. "Our global economic system is now in grave crisis, threatening the entire planet, its institutions and species. A new kind of common wealth is needed to protect the assets of Earth, resolve our private and public debts, and create a global society of justice, sharing and sustainability for everyone. Our commons are the collective heritage of humanity — the shared resources of nature and society that we inherit, create and use. Twelve Key Assets of Ogallala Commons Charlotte Hess: Mapping the New Commons 0. 1.

Keiser Report — RT Programs Every week Max Keiser looks at all the scandal behind the financial news headlines. Max Keiser and Stacy Herbert discuss Americans as the big globalization losers, though they refuse to admit it because they’ve bought Hot Tips from Losers.... April 26, 2014 11:37 Markets! Finance! Every week Max Keiser looks at all the scandal behind the financial news headlines. April 24, 2014 11:30 Every week Max Keiser looks at all the scandal behind the financial news headlines. April 22, 2014 13:30 In this episode of the Keiser Report, Max Keiser and Stacy Herbert discuss American injustice in the age of the wealth gap and Weev's hedge fund... April 19, 2014 16:15 In this episode of the Keiser Report, Max Keiser and Stacy Herbert discuss the American dream as being chained to the booth in the waffle house as cogs in... April 17, 2014 11:30 Max Keiser and Stacy Herbert discuss how ignorance could, indeed, be bliss for all of us if the ignorant would just STFU. April 15, 2014 13:30 April 12, 2014 13:30

Digital Library Of The Commons Digital Library of the Commons hidden Image DatabaseExport Citations Menu: Search the DLC Advanced Search Browse the DLC My Account Commons Links DLC Home Digital Library Of The Commons Repository The Digital Library of the Commons (DLC) is a gateway to the international literature on the commons. Submit an Item DLC is a collaborative project of the: Generous funding has also been provided by the: About The Commons Feedback - Tell us about your user experience Select a Document Type Vincent and Elinor Ostrom Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis | 513 N.

‘Nationalisatie Fortis en ABN Amro was niet nodig’ Binnenland De nationalisatie van Fortis en ABN AMRO drie jaar geleden was niet nodig geweest. Dat zei Oud-Fortis-bestuurder Lex Kloosterman vandaag voor de parlementaire enquêtecommissie-De Wit, zo meldt de NOS. Volgens Kloosterman had Fortis ook gered kunnen worden als België, Nederland en Luxemburg zich aan de eerdere afspraken hadden gehouden. Kloosterman liet verder doorschemeren dat de nationalisatie relatief duur was voor Nederland, namelijk 16,8 miljard euro. Lees meer over: ABN Amro Fortis Lex Kloosterman onderzoekscommissie-De Wit Natural capital Remarks from 1937 by FDR on "natural capital" and "balancing the budget of our resources" §History of the concept[edit] Natural capital is one approach to ecosystem valuation which revolves around the idea, in contrast to traditional economics, that non-human life produces essential resources. Thus, ecological health is essential to the sustainability of the economy. In a traditional economic analysis of the factors of production, natural capital would usually be classified as "land" distinct from traditional "capital". The term 'natural capital' was first used by in 1973 by E.F. Within the international community, the basic principle is not controversial, but there is significant controversy over methods of valuing different aspects of ecological health and natural capital. §Internationally agreed standard[edit] §See also[edit] §References[edit] §Notes[edit] §Further reading[edit] Pearce, D. 1993. §External links[edit] Costanza, Robert (Lead Author); Cutler J.

'Toezicht DNB op banken niet te controleren' | nu.nl/economie DEN HAAG - De Algemene Rekenkamer zegt niet te kunnen controleren of het toezicht van De Nederlandsche Bank (DNB) op banken verbeterd is. Foto: ANP DNB geeft de Rekenkamer geen inzage in de toezichtsdossiers. Dat blijkt uit een woensdag gepresenteerd rapport van de Rekenkamer over het toezicht door De Nederlandsche Bank. Vasthoudender houding De Rekenkamer constateert dat het toezicht door DNB sinds de kredietcrisis op papier is verbeterd, maar dat niet vast te stellen is of dat in de praktijk ook leidt tot een indringender en vasthoudender houding bij de toezichthouder. Volgens de Rekenkamer verschuilt DNB zich ten onrechte achter Europese regelgeving die inzage in toezichtsdossiers zou tegenhouden. Kredietcrisis Na het uitbreken van de kredietcrisis kregen ook financiële toezichthouders kritiek. De Rekenkamer wijst erop dat tijdens de kredietcrisis ook gezonde banken in de problemen raakten door ontwikkelingen op onder meer de financiële markten. Spagaat Raad van State

Wientjes voor tweede jaar op rij invloedrijkste Nederlander Wientjes in oktober 2009 na mislukt SER-overleg over hervorming van de AOW. Foto NRC / Roel Rozenburg Binnenland Bernard Wientjes is voor het tweede jaar op rij de invloedrijkste Nederlander. Wientjes dankt zijn topnotering aan zijn lobby voor twee onderwerpen, meldt persbureau Novum. Wijers steeg van de vijfde naar de tweede plaats vanwege zijn prestigieuze nevenfuncties in diverse sectoren. Agnes Jongerius is niet meer de invloedrijkste vrouw. De hoogste nieuwe binnenkomer op de top 200 is Klaas Knot. Lees meer over: Agnes Jongerius Alexander Rinnooy Kan Bernard Wientjes De Volkskrant Klaas Knot

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