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Writing system

Writing system
Writing systems of the world today. Other alphabets Other abjads Other abugidas General properties[edit] Chinese characters (漢字) are morpho-syllabic. Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least a spoken language. Every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of mankind. All writing systems require: Basic terminology[edit] In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along partially independent lines. A grapheme is a specific base unit of a writing system. An individual grapheme may be represented in a wide variety of ways, where each variation is visually distinct in some regard, but all are interpreted as representing the "same" grapheme. Writing systems are conceptual systems, as are the languages to which they refer. History[edit] Functional classification[edit]

http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Writing_system

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The International Typographic Style Timeline Graphis #1 Graphis, The International Journal of Visual Communication, was first published in 1944 by Walter Herdeg in Zurich, Switzerland. Graphis Inc. is the international publisher of books and magazines on communication design, advertising, photography, annual reports, posters, logos, packaging, book design, brochures, corporate identity, letterhead, interactive design and other design associated with graphic arts. Alexander Marshack Archaeology career[edit] Despite lacking a PhD, Marshack became a research associate at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University in 1963 with the support of Hallam L. Movius, giving him access to state and university archaeological collections that he would not otherwise have been able to view.[1] He rose to public prominence after the publication of The Roots of Civilization in 1972, where he proposed the controversial theory that notches and lines carved on certain Upper Paleolithic bone plaques were in fact notation systems, specifically lunar calendars notating the passage of time.[2] Using microscopic analysis, Marshack showed that seemingly random or meaningless notches on bone were sometimes interpretable as structured series of numbers. Following a stroke in 2003, his health was in decline, and he died in December 2004.

Responsive Typography: The Basics by Oliver Reichenstein When we built websites we usually started by defining the body text. The body text definition dictates how wide your main column is, the rest used to follow almost by itself. Used to. Until recently, screen resolution was more or less homogenous. Pictogram A pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto,[1] and also an 'icon', is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object. Pictographs are often used in writing and graphic systems in which the characters are to a considerable extent pictorial in appearance. Pictography is a form of writing which uses representational, pictorial drawings, similarly to cuneiform and, to some extent, hieroglyphic writing, which also uses drawings as phonetic letters or determinative rhymes.

Best Free Fonts of 2011 With only a month and a half left in 2011, it’s hard to believe another year is drawing to a close. If you’re a long time reader of WDL, you probably know that at the end of each year we publish a series of posts that highlight our favorite freebies and resources from that year. It’s an excellent way to show you what you might have missed, and to give the designers and creators some well deserved recognition. To kick it off, here are the best free fonts of 2011. There were tons of great free fonts released this year, so it was a difficult task choosing our favorites.

Symbolic Counting Tokens from the Early Near East These are samples of the clay counters used in the Near East from about 9,000 B.C. (calibrated) to 1500 B.C. There were about 500 distinct types, although not in all times and places. Tokens start to be found at widely separated sites as of 8,000 B.C. 28 Fonts For Web Designers inShare26 It is obvious that Web designers do their best to make their sites better and more attractive to the visitors. When creating a site they must take into account every detail even the smallest and choosing a font you are going to use sometimes can bring you to a deadlock. We have previously showcased some great collections of free fonts and we are not going to stop there! We would like to present to you a really amazing collection of free download fonts collected from all over the web. You can use some of these fonts for specific purposes and others can be used for general use.

Sumerian Calculation Greece presented us with the first physical evidence of how the ancients did math, and Rome advanced it to a hand held calculator, but if we track the concept back through Greece, we discover that the technologies Greece and Rome used, began in the Middle East as much as 9,000 years ago. Approximately 8000 BCE, Sumerians migrated from the East into the fertile regions of the Tigris-Euphrates river valleys and founded the civilization we call "Sumer." This seems to be the place where they first developed writing and attached it to the tools the Greeks and Romans used (Egyptian disclaimer). It is possible that in the prehistoric past, the Sumerians used pebbles but moved from to clay tokens. In these tokens, a stick shape equaled 1; a clay pebble equaled 10; a cone equaled 60, etc.

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