Writing systems of the world today. Other alphabets Other abjads Other abugidas General properties Chinese characters (漢字) are morpho-syllabic. Writing systems are distinguished from other possible symbolic communication systems in that a writing system is always associated with at least a spoken language. Every human community possesses language, which many regard as an innate and defining condition of mankind. All writing systems require: Basic terminology In the examination of individual scripts, the study of writing systems has developed along partially independent lines. A grapheme is a specific base unit of a writing system. An individual grapheme may be represented in a wide variety of ways, where each variation is visually distinct in some regard, but all are interpreted as representing the "same" grapheme. Writing systems are conceptual systems, as are the languages to which they refer. History Functional classification
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Alexander MarshackArchaeology career Despite lacking a PhD, Marshack became a research associate at the Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnology at Harvard University in 1963 with the support of Hallam L. Movius, giving him access to state and university archaeological collections that he would not otherwise have been able to view. He rose to public prominence after the publication of The Roots of Civilization in 1972, where he proposed the controversial theory that notches and lines carved on certain Upper Paleolithic bone plaques were in fact notation systems, specifically lunar calendars notating the passage of time. Using microscopic analysis, Marshack showed that seemingly random or meaningless notches on bone were sometimes interpretable as structured series of numbers. Following a stroke in 2003, his health was in decline, and he died in December 2004. References Jump up ^ Times Online (2005-01-22). External links
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.. :: The International Typographic Style Timeline :: ..Graphis #1 Graphis, The International Journal of Visual Communication, was first published in 1944 by Walter Herdeg in Zurich, Switzerland. Graphis Inc. is the international publisher of books and magazines on communication design, advertising, photography, annual reports, posters, logos, packaging, book design, brochures, corporate identity, letterhead, interactive design and other design associated with graphic arts. Graphis was (and still is) one of the most important and influential European graphic design publication. Over 350 issues of Graphis magazine have been published. Max Bill Max Bill was a Swiss architect, artist, painter, typeface designer, and graphic designer. In 1944, he became a professor at the school of arts in Zurich. Among Bill's most famous designs is the "Ulmer Hocker", a stool that can also be used as a shelf or a side table.
OrthographyMost significant languages in the modern era are written down, and for most such languages a standard orthography has developed, often based on a standard variety of the language, and thus exhibiting less dialect variation than the spoken language. Sometimes there may be variation in a language's orthography, as between American and British spelling in the case of English. If a language uses multiple writing systems, it may have distinct orthographies, as is the case with Kurdish, Uyghur, Serbian, Inuktitut and Turkish. In some cases orthography is regulated by bodies such as language academies, although for many languages (including English) there are no such authorities, and orthography develops through less formal processes. Orthography is distinct from typography, which is concerned with principles of typesetting. Etymology and meaning The English word orthography dates from the 15th century. Units and notation Types Correspondence with pronunciation
JainismJainism (/ˈdʒeɪnɪzəm/ or /ˈdʒaɪnɪzəm/), traditionally known as Jin Sashana or Jain dharma (Sanskrit: जैन धर्म), is an Indian religion that prescribes a path of nonviolence (ahimsa) towards all living beings. Practitioners believe that nonviolence and self-control are the means by which they can obtain liberation. The three main principles of Jainism are non-violence (ahimsa), non-absolutism (anekantavada) and non-possessiveness (aparigraha). Followers of Jainism take 5 major vows: non-violence, non-lying, non-stealing, chastity, and non-attachment. Asceticism is thus a major focus of the Jain faith. Jainism is derived from the word Jina (conqueror) referring to a human being who has conquered inner enemies like attachment, desire, anger, pride, greed, etc. and possesses infinite knowledge (Kevala Jnana). Doctrine Non-violence (ahimsa) The hand with a wheel on the palm symbolizes Ahimsa (nonviolence). Non-absolutism Main article: Anekantavada Non-possessiveness
PictogramA pictogram, also called a pictogramme, pictograph, or simply picto, and also an 'icon', is an ideogram that conveys its meaning through its pictorial resemblance to a physical object. Pictographs are often used in writing and graphic systems in which the characters are to a considerable extent pictorial in appearance. Pictography is a form of writing which uses representational, pictorial drawings, similarly to cuneiform and, to some extent, hieroglyphic writing, which also uses drawings as phonetic letters or determinative rhymes. In certain modern use, pictograms participate to a formal language (e.g. Historical Early written symbols were based on pictographs (pictures which resemble what they signify) and ideograms (symbols which represent ideas). Pictographs can be considered an art form, or can be considered a written language and are designated as such in Pre-Columbian art, Native American art, Ancient Mesopotamia and Painting in the Americas before Colonization.
Anisotropic shader tutorial using vray 1.5 final SP 1Now we are going to create steel shader. Here are settings for this material. It is quite simple, there is scratch map put in bump slot to achieve subtle brushed metal effect. Use cylindrical uvw mapping on each part of the pot And then convert object to poly. Anisotropic material settings: Here are maps used in reflection and normal bump slots: Get full resolution reflect map Get full resolution normal map Very important thing to do is set BRDF to Ward mode. I deleted faces from the bottom and then caped the hole, to make it completely planar surface. scene.zip
Responsive Typography: The Basicsby Oliver Reichenstein When we built websites we usually started by defining the body text. The body text definition dictates how wide your main column is, the rest used to follow almost by itself. Used to. Until recently, screen resolution was more or less homogenous. Today we deal with a variation of screen sizes and resolutions. In the heat of the relaunch I wrote a quick blog post on responsive typography, focussing solely on the aspect of our latest experiment: responsive typefaces. To avoid designing different layouts for every possible screen size, many web designers have adopted the concept of Responsive Web Design. Adaptive layouts: adjusting the layout in steps to a limited number of sizes Liquid layouts: adjusting the layout continuously to every possible width Note: Responsive design already incorporates a lot of macro typographic issues (type size, line height, columns width). Choosing a typeface The right tone Serif or sans serif? What size? Line height and contrast