Sacred-Texts Ancient Near East ENUMA ELISH THE EPIC OF CREATION L.W. King Translator (from The Seven Tablets of Creation, London 1902) A more complete etext of the Seven Tablets of Creation is also available here. When in the height heaven was not named, And the earth beneath did not yet bear a name, And the primeval Apsu, who begat them, And chaos, Tiamut, the mother of them both Their waters were mingled together, And no field was formed, no marsh was to be seen; When of the gods none had been called into being, And none bore a name, and no destinies were ordained; Then were created the gods in the midst of heaven, Lahmu and Lahamu were called into being... Ages increased,... [about 30 illegible lines] ... he spake: ... thy... he hath conquered and ... he weepeth and sitteth in tribulation. ... of fear, ... we shall not lie down in peace. ... Tiamat made weighty her handiwork, Evil she wrought against the gods her children. [A gap of about a dozen lines occurs here.] They rejoiced...
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Egyptian MythologyEgyptian mythology: The Shabaka Stone - Memphite mythology Sekhmet and Ptah Osiris Excerpt. Courtesy Jon Bodsworth Anubis Excerpt. Courtesy Jon Bodsworth Re-Horakhte Excerpt. Courtesy Jon Bodsworth From time immemorial Egypt has been known as the country of two lands: The desertlike Upper Egypt, or the Red Land, and Lower Egypt, or the Black Land, where the soil is fertile. Even today 99 percent of the Egyptian population live in the Black Land. by Charles H. From the Shabaka Stone [King of Upper and Lower Egypt] is this Ptah, who is called the great name: [Ta-te]nen [South-of-his-Wall, Lord of eternity] [the joiner] of Upper and Lower Egypt is he, this uniter who arose as king of Upper Egypt and arose as king of Lower Egypt. The Memphite theology takes over older local notions of creation, such as that of Hermopolis, which describes creation proceeding from eight primordial beings of chaos who inhabited the primeval slime. His (Ptah's) Ennead is before him as teeth and lips.
Liber Juratus Honorii, or the Sworn Book of HonoriusFirst, make a circle with a diameter of three fingers, on account of the Lord's three nails, or five on account of the five wounds, or seven on account of the seven sacraments, or nine on account of the nine orders of angels, but generally five fingers are customary. Then, below that circle make another circle, distant from the first by two barley grains (on account of the two Tablets of Moses), else the distance from the first can be three grains (on account of the three persons in the Trinity.) Then below those two circles in the uppermost part, which is called the southern angle, make a single cross, the leg of which may slightly enter the innermost circle. Then, from the right side of the cross, write .h. This done, in the middle of the circles, namely in the center, make a pentagram thus: in the middle of which should be the sign 'Tau', thus: , and above that sign, write the name of God El, and underneath this another name of God, namely, Ely, in this fashion:
Gods of Ancient Egypt Main MenuMany books have been written on religion in ancient Egypt. This brief overview is meant only to explain some of the basic concepts and to introduce some of the gods. Religion in ancient Egypt was not unlike modern times. Today, not everyone believes in the same way, or of the same god. The creator of all things was either Re, Amun, Ptah, Khnum or Aten, depending on which version of the myth was currently in use. As stated earlier, certain gods were worshipped in different areas. Amaunet - A female counterpart to Amon and one of the primordial gods of the Hermopolitian Ogdoad (group of eight gods). Amon - Usually associated with the wind, or things hidden, and was also of the Hermopolitian Ogdoad. Antaios - He was originally a double god, "the two falcons", that was later joined to create one, probably that of Horus. Anuket - Worshipped at Elephantine, she was associated with the gazelle. Atum - A primordial god that was represented in the form of a human and a serpent.
Creation MythsShillluk (Africa) [Excerpted and edited from Folklore in the Old Testament, J.G. Frazer.] The creator Juok moulded all people of earth. In the land of the whites he found a pure white earth or sand, and out of it he shaped white people. The way in which he modeled human beings was this. Sikh For millions upon millions, countless years was spread darkness, When existed neither earth nor heaven, but only the limitless Divine Ordinance. Then were not Brahma, Vishnu or Shiva: None other than the Sole Lord was visible. Brahma, Vishnu, and Shiva He created and to maya-attachment gave increase. The Creator fashioned the Nine Abodes [of sensation]; In the Tenth [the superconscious mind] is lodged the Lord, unknowable, limitless. Tahitian He was. Vodun Damballah (Sky-serpent loa and wise and loving Father archetype) created all the waters of the earth. When he shed his skin in the sun, releasing all the waters over the land, the sun shone in the water and created the rainbow. Yokut
Library of AshurbanipalThe Royal Library of Ashurbanipal, named after Ashurbanipal, the last great king of the Neo-Assyrian Empire, is a collection of thousands of clay tablets and fragments containing texts of all kinds from the 7th century BC. Among its holdings was the famous Epic of Gilgamesh. Due to the sloppy handling of the original material much of the library is irreparably jumbled, making it impossible for scholars to discern and reconstruct many of the original texts, although some have survived intact. The materials were found in the archaeological site of Kouyunjik (ancient Nineveh, capital of Assyria) in northern Mesopotamia. Old Persian and Armenian traditions indicate that Alexander the Great, upon seeing the great library of Ashurbanipal at Nineveh, was inspired to create his own library. Discovery Three years later, Hormuzd Rassam, Layard's assistant, discovered a similar "library" in the palace of King Ashurbanipal (668 - 627 BC), on the opposite side of the mound. Contents
Sumerian Mythology FAQby Christopher Siren, 1992, 1994, 2000 cbsiren at alum dot mit dot edu This FAQ used to be posted on the third of every month to alt.mythology. An older text copy of this FAQ is available via anonymous ftp pending *.answers approval at: rtfm.mit.edu at /pub/usenet/news.answers/mythology/sumer-faq last changes: July 27, 2000: complete revision including incorporating Kramer's Sumerian Mythology and Black & Green's God's Demons and Symbols of Ancient Mesopotamia. Adapa (Dan Sullivan) has constructed a more complete Sumerian-English dictionary at: (Restored! I have constructed a rudimentary Sumerian-English, English Sumerian glossary using Kramer's The Sumerians and Jacobsen's Treasures of Darkness, although parties interested in the Sumerian language may be better served at the prior two pages. note: This FAQ is partly based on an anthropology paper which I wrote in 1992, using some of the sources detailed below. Contents: I. History Culture
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