Overfishing | Save Our Seas Foundation One in five people on this planet depends on fish as the primary source of protein. —Food and Agriculture Organization "We are in the situation where 40 years down the line we, effectively, are out of fish." —Pavan Sukhdev, UN Environment Programme Overview Overfishing occurs when fish and other marine species are caught faster than they can reproduce. Sustainable fishing The statistics are grim: 3/4 of the world's fish stocks are being harvested faster than they can reproduce. The most prized species are already disappearing. Case study: Atlantic bluefin tuna They can weigh over half a ton, grow to over four metres in length, and dive to depths of 1,000 metres. Bluefin tuna are unique, perfectly-adapted products of evolution. Coveted for their dense, dark red meat used in sushi (where it is known as “toro”), bluefin support an unsustainable $7.2 billion industry that has driven tuna stocks to the brink of collapse. Bycatch Remedies What can be done? In practical terms, this means:
How Bad Is Overfishing & What Can We Do To Stop It? photo: Jim G via flickr By now you'd have to have been living on a desert island by yourself with an imaginary coconut companion to not know that overfishing is a serious problem for all the world's oceans. The good news is, though the future for fish looks pretty dire if we keep up how we've been fishing, we already have seen conservation successes to show the way forward and stop overfishing.Just so we're all on the same page though, let's set out the state of the problem first. Global Fish Stocks to Collapse by 2050 at Current Exploitation RatesPerhaps the first thing to wrap your head around is just how to measure the problem. When the only official global statistics available for fisheries are based on self-reported data by nations and three- to four-fold underestimations are common, according to independent scientific assessments, the magnitude is hard to fully gauge. The key difference between past ages and now is that in the past there was always another area to move on to.
Réflexions philosophiques sur le travail Texte d’Eric Hamraoui, maître de conférences en philosophie au Centre de recherche sur le travail et le développement (CRTD) du Conservatoire national des arts et métiers (CNAM) à Paris, diffusé par le Mouvement politique d’éducation populaire (M’PEP). Le 18 juillet 2012. Le M’PEP diffuse aujourd’hui le texte d’un philosophe dont la réflexion porte sur le travail. Il s’agit d’Eric Hamraoui qui avait déjà participé au colloque organisé par le M’PEP à Lyon, le 10 mars 2012, sur le thème « Pour une République du droit opposable à l’emploi ». Ce texte n’est évidemment pas d’un abord facile et nécessite un effort personnel soutenu. Ainsi, dans son texte, Eric Hamraoui fait le lien entre le sens des concepts de « travail vivant », de « subjectivité » et de « coopération », et la pensée de Marx. Dans sa Contribution à la critique de l’économie politique (1859), Marx définit le travail comme « activité utile en vue de l’appropriation des matières naturelles sous une forme ou sous une autre ».
Bycatch | Threats | WWF Bycatch occurs because modern fishing gear is very efficient, often covers an extensive area, and can be highly unselective—it catches not only the target species but many other marine animals as well. Poor fisheries management in certain countries further contributes to the problem. Widespread pirate fishing ignores regulations on net mesh sizes, quotas, permitted fishing areas and other bycatch mitigation measures. NON-SELECTIVE FISHING GEARFishing gear is largely non-selective—any species can be caught, including non-target species. Longlines, trawling and the use of gillnets are the fishing methods that most commonly result in bycatch. With trawling, boats drag large nets along the seabed, catching almost everything in their path.
Qu'est-ce que les secteurs "marchand" et "non-marchand" La comptabilité nationale distingue le secteur marchand et le secteur non-marchand. Est marchand ce qui est vendu à un prix « économiquement significatif », c’est-à-dire couvrant plus de 50 % des coûts, le prix pouvant être un péage, une redevance ou un droit. Est non-marchand ce qui est financé par des « prélèvements obligatoires » et des contributions volontaires (dons, cotisations), et distribué gratuitement ou vendu à un prix « économiquement non significatif », c’est-à-dire qui couvre moins de la moitié des coûts de production. Comme il n’y a pas de prix de marché dans le secteur non-marchand, on mesure ces services, dans la comptabilité nationale et donc dans le PIB, par la somme de leurs coûts de production : essentiellement la rémunération des salariés (les fonctionnaires notamment). Selon les néolibéraux, seule l’entreprise privée, et donc la sphère marchande, produirait des richesses.
Coasts and seas Human activities are causing unprecedented environmental changes for coastal and marine ecosystems. Pressures from fishing, pollution from land- and sea-based sources, urbanisation, loss and degradation of valuable habitat, and invasions of non-native species are growing worldwide. All these impacts are likely to be exacerbated by the changing climate. More Observed global mean sea level rise has accelerated over the past 15 years. Unsustainable fishing occurs in all European Seas and is threatening the viability of European fish stocks. 21 to 60% of the commercial fish stocks in the North-East Atlantic, the Baltic Sea and the Mediterranean are considered to be outside... more Sea surface temperatures and sea level are rising and likely to rise further. Nutrient enrichment is a major problem in the coastal and marine environment, where it accelerates the growth of phytoplankton and can lead to oxygen depletion.
Overfishing "There's enough on this planet for everyone's needs but not for everyone's greed" - Mahatma Gandhi For our children to have future income, food and pleasure we need healthy oceans and a healthy fishing industry. We need to create ocean sanctuaries to improve the state of our oceans and our fish populations. We need to vastly improve the way we fish, so it is not wasteful and damaging, but first we urgently need to stop taking fish faster than our oceans can replenish. But common sense is not working at the moment. Here are some facts and figures that may shock you: 63 percent of global fish stocks are now considered overfished. 40,000 jobs were lost with the collapse of just one overfished cod populationFishing fleets are heading to new waters because they have exhausted their old hunting grounds The fishing industry now has vessels that can go further, stay longer and catch more, easily out-fishing nature’s ability to replenish fish.
Observatoire des inégalités 28 juillet 2016 - 80 % des cadres supérieurs partent en congés chaque année, contre 50 % des ouvriers. Et encore, entre catégories, on ne part ni aussi souvent, ni aussi longtemps, ni dans les mêmes conditions. Près des deux tiers des Français déclaraient partir en vacances  au milieu des années 1990, selon le Crédoc. Le taux de départ en vacances a ensuite diminué petit à petit jusqu’à tomber à quasiment 50 % en 2008. Depuis 2011, il repart à la hausse et a atteint 60 % en 2014 (dernières données disponibles) . Qui sont les chanceux qui vont faire leurs valises ? Partir dépend plus largement du milieu social. 82 % des cadres supérieurs partent en congés contre 47 % des ouvriers. Des inégalités qui se creusent Le taux de départ en vacances a eu tendance à augmenter pour toutes les catégories sociales au cours des dernières années, ce qui peut paraître paradoxal en temps de crise. Photo / © lamax - Fotolia.com
Oceans fit for the future We stand with everyone who wants healthy oceans for our children, who want marine life to thrive and the fishing industry to give jobs and a future for millions. We will be part of the movement that works to create and protect clean seas that bring life to our planet. Healthy oceans can fight many impacts of climate change. Scientists warn the subsequent rising sea levels will flood low-lying land and wipe out entire islands in our lifetime. Letting science and common sense determine how many fish we can catch instead of allowing greedy industries and politicians to decide would end overfishing overnight! The fishermen know it too, but rather than slow down, the majority of fishing companies are still netting and hooking faster than the fish can reproduce and we are already driving entire populations to collapse. Let’s make piracy history. And it is not just the masked sailors at sea who are stealing food from poor communities; it’s the company bosses on land as well.
Obama to order ocean protections with executive powers, Kerry says | Environment The US secretary of state, John Kerry, says saving the world's oceans was a vital security issue, and has urged leaders at an international summit to take immediate action on overfishing and pollution. Kerry, speaking at the start of the summit, said humans had caused “enormous damage” to the oceans, jeopardising the food security of three billion people on the planet. The two-day conference includes officials from 80 countries, and is the most visible effort to date by the Obama administration to lead a global conservation effort for the oceans. Kerry called on leaders to take immediate steps on overfishing, pollution, and changes in ocean chemistry caused by rising carbon dioxide emissions. “No one should mistake that the protection of our oceans is a vital international security issue,” Kerry said. “Most people under-estimate the enormous damage we as people are inflicting on our oceans every single day.” Other leaders were also expected to do their part.