The primary function of a central bank is to manage the nation's money supply (monetary policy), through active duties such as managing interest rates, setting the reserve requirement, and acting as a lender of last resort to the banking sector during times of bank insolvency or financial crisis. Central banks usually also have supervisory powers, intended to prevent bank runs and to reduce the risk that commercial banks and other financial institutions engage in reckless or fraudulent behavior. Central banks in most developed nations are institutionally designed to be independent from political interference. Still, limited control by the executive and legislative bodies usually exists. The chief executive of a central bank is normally known as the Governor, President or Chairman. History Prior to the 17th century most money was commodity money, typically gold or silver. Bank of England The sealing of the Bank of England Charter (1694). Spread around the world
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Bank of England - WikiThe Bank of England, formally the Governor and Company of the Bank of England, is the central bank of the United Kingdom and the model on which most modern central banks have been based. Established in 1694, it is the second oldest central bank in the world, after the Sveriges Riksbank, and the world's 8th oldest bank. It was established to act as the English Government's banker, and is still the banker for the Government of the United Kingdom. The Bank was privately owned by stockholders from its foundation in 1694 until nationalised in 1946. In 1998, it became an independent public organisation, wholly owned by the Treasury Solicitor on behalf of the government, with independence in setting monetary policy. The Bank is one of eight banks authorised to issue banknotes in the United Kingdom, but has a monopoly on the issue of banknotes in England and Wales and regulates the issue of banknotes by commercial banks in Scotland and Northern Ireland. History
Bank for International SettlementsThe Bank for International Settlements (BIS) is an international financial institution owned by central banks which "fosters international monetary and financial cooperation and serves as a bank for central banks". The BIS carries out its work through its meetings programmes and through the Basel Process – hosting international groups pursuing global financial stability and facilitating their interaction. It also provides banking services, but only to central banks and other international organizations. It is based in Basel, Switzerland, with representative offices in Hong Kong and Mexico City. History BIS main building in Basel, Switzerland The BIS was established in 1930 by an intergovernmental agreement between Germany, Belgium, France, the United Kingdom, Italy, Japan, the United States and Switzerland. It opened its doors in Basel, Switzerland on 17 May 1930. The BIS’s original task of facilitating World War I reparation payments quickly became obsolete.
Money supplyMoney supply data are recorded and published, usually by the government or the central bank of the country. Public and private sector analysts have long monitored changes in money supply because of its effects on the price level, inflation, the exchange rate and the business cycle. That relation between money and prices is historically associated with the quantity theory of money. The nature of this causal chain is the subject of contention. In addition, those economists seeing the central bank's control over the money supply as feeble say that there are two weak links between the growth of the money supply and the inflation rate. Empirical measures in the United States Federal Reserve System See also European Central Bank for other approaches and a more global perspective. Money is used as a medium of exchange, a unit of account, and as a ready store of value. This continuum corresponds to the way that different types of money are more or less controlled by monetary policy.
J. P. MorganJohn Pierpont "J. P." Morgan (April 17, 1837 – March 31, 1913) was an American financier, banker, philanthropist and art collector who dominated corporate finance and industrial consolidation during his time. Morgan died in Rome, Italy, in his sleep in 1913 at the age of 75, leaving his fortune and business to his son, John Pierpont "Jack" Morgan, Jr., and bequeathing his mansion and large book collections to The Morgan Library & Museum in New York. At the height of Morgan's career during the early 1900s, he and his partners had financial investments in many large corporations and had significant influence over the nation's high finance. Childhood and education J. In the spring of 1852, illness that was to become more common as his life progressed struck; rheumatic fever left him in so much pain that he could not walk. Career Early years and life J. J.P. After the 1893 death of Anthony Drexel, the firm was rechristened "J. Modernizing management Newspapers U.S.
Bank of England injects further £75bn into economy6 October 2011Last updated at 15:11 The governor of the Bank of England, Mervyn King, tells the BBC that quantitative easing will have an effect The Bank of England has said it will inject a further £75bn into the economy through quantitative easing (QE). The Bank has already pumped £200bn into the economy by buying assets such as government bonds, in an attempt to boost lending by commercial banks. But this is the first time it has added to its QE programme since 2009. The Bank also held interest rates at the record low of 0.5%. On Wednesday, data showed the UK economy grew by 0.1% between April and June, which was less than previously thought. "In the United Kingdom, the path of output has been affected by a number of temporary factors, but the available indicators suggest that the underlying rate of growth has also moderated," the Bank said in a statement. "The deterioration in the outlook has made it more likely that inflation will undershoot the 2% target in the medium term.
Fractional-reserve bankingFractional-reserve banking is the practice whereby a bank holds reserves in an amount equal to only a portion of the amount of its customers' deposits to satisfy potential demands for withdrawals. Reserves are held at the bank as currency, or as deposits reflected in the bank's accounts at the central bank. Because bank deposits are usually considered money in their own right, fractional-reserve banking permits the money supply to grow to a multiple (called the money multiplier) of the underlying reserves of base money originally created by the central bank. Fractional-reserve banking is the current form of banking in all countries worldwide. History Fractional-reserve banking predates the existence of governmental monetary authorities and originated many centuries ago in bankers' realization that generally not all depositors demand payment at the same time. How it works In most legal systems, a bank deposit is not a bailment. Economic function Formula
12 Eye-Catching Resume TipsinShare761 Gone are the days of simply mailing your resume, receiving a call, shaking hands at the interview and agreeing on a start date for that new job. The Internet has taken over the recruiting landscape and everyone is required to submit a resume online. Consider these 12 tips before pressing “submit:” 1) Search job boards and the websites of employers that appeal to you. 2) Use a highlighter to mark the keywords and industry language used to describe the requirements and responsibilities of each position. 3) Compare those words and phrases to the language that appears in your current resume. 4) Figure out how and where to add the most relevant keywords to your resume, assuming you have the specific knowledge, skills and experience. 5) Once you’re confident that your resume reflects a strong match, go ahead and submit that targeted resume online. 7) Never submit a generic, one-size-fits-all resume or cover letter. | 1 | 2 | Next Page
Rockefeller familyThe Rockefeller family /ˈrɒkɨfɛlər/ is an American industrial, political, and banking family that made one of the world's largest fortunes in the oil business during the late 19th and early 20th centuries, with John D. Rockefeller and his brother William Rockefeller primarily through Standard Oil. The family is also known for its long association with and control of Chase Manhattan Bank. They are considered to be one of the most powerful families, if not the most powerful family, in the history of the United States. Real Estate and Institutions The Rockefeller Center and the RCA Building, December 1933 The family was heavily involved in numerous real estate construction projects in the U.S. during the 20th century. Chief among them: Conservation The family was honored for its conservation efforts in November, 2005, by the National Audubon Society, one of America's largest and oldest conservation organizations, at which over 30 family members attended.