Monster Alabama Tornado Spawned by Rare "Perfect Storm" ON TV: Witness: Tornado Swarm 2011 airs Sunday, May 29, 9 p.m. ET/PT >> The monster tornado that devastated Tuscaloosa, Alabama, (see map) on April 27 was spawned by unusual "perfect storm" conditions, experts say. (See pictures of the Alabama tornado.) Those conditions—which stretched across Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia—included warm, moist air rising and mixing with colder, dry air at higher altitudes. Unfortunately for those living in the tornadoes' path, "weather conditions came together perfectly," said Tim Samaras, a Denver, Colorado-based tornado expert and producer of the tornado-research website TWISTEX. "Mississippi, Alabama, and Georgia had that down to a T. Upper-level winds known as the jet stream also caused the storm system to rotate, according to meteorologist Jeff Masters, director of the website Weather Underground. Rotating thunderstorms—known as super cells—spawn tornadoes. "This is a history-making tornado outbreak," Masters said. Stormy Spring Still a Mystery
It’s time for science to abandon the term ‘statistically significant’ | Aeon Essays The aim of science is to establish facts, as accurately as possible. It is therefore crucially important to determine whether an observed phenomenon is real, or whether it’s the result of pure chance. If you declare that you’ve discovered something when in fact it’s just random, that’s called a false discovery or a false positive. And false positives are alarmingly common in some areas of medical science. In 2005, the epidemiologist John Ioannidis at Stanford caused a storm when he wrote the paper ‘Why Most Published Research Findings Are False’, focusing on results in certain areas of biomedicine. The problem of how to distinguish a genuine observation from random chance is a very old one. What matters to a scientific observer is how often you’ll be wrong if you claim that an effect is real, rather than being merely random. Tests of statistical significance proceed by calculating the probability of making our observations (or the more extreme ones) if there were no real effect.
The efficacy of calibrating hydrologic model using remotely sensed evapotranspiration and soil moisture for streamflow prediction a Department of Infrastructure Engineering, The University of Melbourne, Parkville, Victoria 3010, Australiab CSIRO Land and Water, P.O. Box 1666, Canberra, ACT 2601, Australiac Integrated Water and Land Management Program, ICARDA, P.O. Box 2416, Cairo, Egypt Received 7 September 2015, Revised 8 February 2016, Accepted 11 February 2016, Available online 22 February 2016 This manuscript was handled by Tim R. McVicar, Editor-in-Chief, with the assistance of Di Long, Associate Editor Choose an option to locate/access this article: Check if you have access through your login credentials or your institution Check access doi:10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.02.018 Get rights and content Highlights Remotely sensed evapotranspiration (ET) and soil moisture (SM) are used for hydrologic model calibration. Efficacy of each of calibration is assessed by the improvement in streamflow predictions. Calibration performs well in catchments with high average runoff. Summary Keywords Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V.
Alabama tornado anniversary: Study shows victims heeded warnings STR / Reuters An aerial view shows extensive damage to homes and businesses in the path of tornadoes in Tuscaloosa, Alabama, on April 28. By Mike Stobbe, The Associated Press ATLANTA -- Most of the victims of last year's epic tornado outbreak in Alabama had at least one thing in common: They knew the storm was coming. A year after the onslaught of dozens of twisters killed at least 250 people in Alabama and more elsewhere in the South, federal researchers are completing a study of who died and where they were when it happened. But many of the tornadoes were so fierce that few structures were able to withstand them. These were catastrophic winds that could destroy pretty much anything in its path," Cindy Chiu, an epidemic intelligence service officer, said in reporting preliminary findings this month at a Centers for Disease Control and Prevention conference in Atlanta. While many who heard the warnings sought shelter, others took their chances and lost.
Lies, Damned Lies, and Medical Science - David H. Freedman In 2001, rumors were circulating in Greek hospitals that surgery residents, eager to rack up scalpel time, were falsely diagnosing hapless Albanian immigrants with appendicitis. At the University of Ioannina medical school’s teaching hospital, a newly minted doctor named Athina Tatsioni was discussing the rumors with colleagues when a professor who had overheard asked her if she’d like to try to prove whether they were true—he seemed to be almost daring her. She accepted the challenge and, with the professor’s and other colleagues’ help, eventually produced a formal study showing that, for whatever reason, the appendices removed from patients with Albanian names in six Greek hospitals were more than three times as likely to be perfectly healthy as those removed from patients with Greek names. “It was hard to find a journal willing to publish it, but we did,” recalls Tatsioni. “I also discovered that I really liked research.” That question has been central to Ioannidis’s career.
How changes in rainfall and stream flows affect water security in the Indian Himalayan foothills | Water, Land and Ecosystems In Uttarakhand, as many as 450 new hydropower facilities are being developed rapidly and haphazardly. Installation of hydropower facilities presents a complex combination of benefits and risks for local residents. Hydropower facilities can provide local electricity, flood control and water storage for climate mitigation. However, there can be negative impacts. In some cases, negotiated agreements have allowed for the timely release of irrigation water. Building upon our expertise in transboundary water security in the Americas and the U.S. Our team is collaborating with university, NGO, and government-agency partners in Uttarakhand on a project entitled “The irrigation-hydropower nexus in the Ganges headwaters” supported by the Research Program on Water, Land and Ecosystems of CGIAR. In Uttarakhand’s Himalayan foothills, we are investigating the interrelationships between water, energy and food – all of which contribute to the water security of the region.
April's tornado outbreaks the two largest in history The largest tornado outbreak and greatest one-day total for tornadoes in history occurred during last week's historic super tornado outbreak, said NOAA in a press release on Wednesday. They estimate 190 tornadoes touched down during the 24-hour period from 8:00 a.m. EDT April 27 to 8:00 a.m. Figure 1. Figure 2. The death toll for the epic outbreak continues to fluctuate, and has decreased substantially to 318. Other notable facts from the great April 25 -28, 2011 tornado outbreakThe Tuscaloosa-Birmingham tornado is likely to be the most expensive tornado of all-time, and damage from the April 25 - 28 outbreak is the most expensive tornado outbreak in history. The Tuscaloosa-Birmingham tornado caused at least 65 fatalities. NOAA estimates there were more than 600 tornadoes during the month of April 2011, shattering previous records. So far, 2011 is the 13th deadliest year for tornadoes on record with 369, and the deadliest year since the advent of Doppler radar in late 1980s and 1990s.
About that Heliocentric thing… This is waaaaay too cool not to share about your planet’s yellow Sun. And then there is this. A good thought project for Lent. As you watch the animation, as you watch the little dot planets whirl about the Sun, and the Sun on the galactic plane go zooming along in its own snaky path, consider how many times you see the planets circle the Sun and then consider the span of your life… … after which you are going before the Judge, through whom all things came into being. Fr.