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Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)

Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
What is Post-traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)? When in danger, it’s natural to feel afraid. This fear triggers many split-second changes in the body to prepare to defend against the danger or to avoid it. This “fight-or-flight” response is a healthy reaction meant to protect a person from harm. PTSD develops after a terrifying ordeal that involved physical harm or the threat of physical harm. PTSD was first brought to public attention in relation to war veterans, but it can result from a variety of traumatic incidents, such as mugging, rape, torture, being kidnapped or held captive, child abuse, car accidents, train wrecks, plane crashes, bombings, or natural disasters such as floods or earthquakes. Causes Genes. Stathmin, a protein needed to form fear memories. GRP (gastrin-releasing peptide), a signaling chemical in the brain released during emotional events. Brain Areas. The Next Steps for PTSD Research Signs & Symptoms PTSD can cause many symptoms. 1. 2. 3. Who Is At Risk? Diagnosis Related:  Mental disorders in primary careWhat is trauma?

Suicide Suicide is the tenth most common cause of death in the United States. People may consider suicide when they are hopeless and can't see any other solution to their problems. Often it's related to serious depression, alcohol or substance abuse, or a major stressful event. People who have the highest risk of suicide are white men. Therapy and medicines can help most people who have suicidal thoughts. NIH: National Institute of Mental Health What is Head Trauma? By Sally Robertson, BSc Head trauma refers to any damage to the scalp, skull or brain caused by injury. Head injury may be classified in various different ways according to the type of injury, which structures in the head are damaged or how severe the trauma is. Closed or open injury One way head injuries are classified is according to whether the injury is open or closed. Closed injury A closed injury refers to damage that does not break the skull or penetrate the brain tissue. Open injury An open injury refers to damage that penetrates the skull causing problems such as bleeding in the brain, skull fracture or the pressing of bones against structures in the brain. Concussion This form of head injury occurs when the brain is shaken, which may or may not involve a blow to the head. Primary or secondary lesion Head injury may be classified according to the type of lesion involved. Primary injury Primary injury is injury that occurs as a direct result of the initial head trauma. Secondary injury

Complex PTSD The diagnosis of post-traumatic stress disorder ( PTSD ) accurately describes the symptoms that result when a person experiences a short-lived trauma. For example, car accidents, natural disasters, and rape are considered traumatic events of time-limited duration. Complex PTSD, however, is the result of long-term trauma. These are chronic traumas that continue for months or even years at a time. The reason complex PTSD is separated from PTSD is that doctors and researchers have found that the current PTSD diagnosis often does not capture the severe psychological harm that occurs with such prolonged, repeated trauma. During long-term traumas, the victim is generally held in a state of captivity. Examples of captivity include: Concentration camps Prisoner of war (POW) camps Prostitution brothels Long-term domestic violence Long-term, severe physical abuse Child sexual abuse Organized child exploitation rings.

Why Passive Aggression Thrives in the Workplace Passive aggressive behavior is the perfect crime when it comes to sabotaging workplace productivity and souring office morale. Defined as a “deliberate and masked way of expressing covert feelings of anger” (Long, Long & Whitson, 2009), passive aggression, by its very nature, occurs through covert and “justifiable” actions that evade Human Resources’ disciplinary action while undermining authority and disrupting work flow. What makes workplaces so vulnerable to passive aggressive behavior? The Time Factor Other than home, many adults spend more time at work than anywhere else. For the person who has difficulty communicating honestly and directly, he will play out his passive aggressive style wherever he spends a great deal of time. Relationships Happen Whether strictly business or over friendly lunches, enduring relationships develop in most workplaces and within relationships, passive aggression occurs. Honesty is Not Always Professional It’s Personal, Not Business You Remind Me of My Mom

Suicide What is Trauma - Bay Area Trauma Center Some events that happen to us as children or adults are so overwhelming and inherently frightening that they cause temporary, and in some cases permanent, changes in our physical and psychological responses to stress. Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder and other debilitating responses to trauma result when the body's normal psychological defenses against stress become overwhelmed. Thus, long after the initial trauma occurs, people may respond as if the traumatic event is currently happening, experiencing strong, painful feelings that may result in self-defeating or even self-destructive behaviors. Symptoms can include re-experiencing the event, avoiding situations that remind you of the event, and an easily triggered physical stress response. Some people’s symptoms may be more subtle or less easily connected to one traumatic event. Often a traumatic experience can be healed through support from friends, family and one’s community.

Depression What Is Depression? Everyone occasionally feels blue or sad. But these feelings are usually short-lived and pass within a couple of days. When you have depression, it interferes with daily life and causes pain for both you and those who care about you. Depression is a common but serious illness. Many people with a depressive illness never seek treatment. There are several forms of depressive disorders. Major depression,—severe symptoms that interfere with your ability to work, sleep, study, eat, and enjoy life. Persistent depressive disorder—depressed mood that lasts for at least 2 years. Some forms of depression are slightly different, or they may develop under unique circumstances. Bipolar disorder, also called manic-depressive illness, is not as common as major depression or persistent depressive disorder. Causes Most likely, depression is caused by a combination of genetic, biological, environmental, and psychological factors. Depressive illnesses are disorders of the brain. Diagnosis