Gautama Buddha The word Buddha means "awakened one" or "the enlightened one". "Buddha" is also used as a title for the first awakened being in an era. In most Buddhist traditions, Siddhartha Gautama is regarded as the Supreme Buddha (Pali sammāsambuddha, Sanskrit samyaksaṃbuddha) of our age.[note 6] Gautama taught a Middle Way between sensual indulgence and the severe asceticism found in the Sramana (renunciation) movement common in his region. He later taught throughout regions of eastern India such as Magadha and Kośala. Gautama is the primary figure in Buddhism and accounts of his life, discourses, and monastic rules are believed by Buddhists to have been summarized after his death and memorized by his followers. Historical Siddhārtha Gautama Ancient kingdoms and cities of India during the time of Buddha. Scholars are hesitant to make unqualified claims about the historical facts of the Buddha's life. The times of Gautama's birth and death are uncertain. Traditional biographies
Kaur This article is about the term in Sikhism. For the town in Yemen, see Al Kawr. For the radio station, see KAUR. Kaur (Punjabi: ਕੌਰ) in Sikhism (meaning: "Always Pure") is a mandatory last name for all baptized female Sikhs. However, it is often used as a middle name though it is supposed to be a last name. §History Kaur is a name used by Sikh women as a last name. Kaur provides Sikh women with a status equal to all men. Sikh principles believe that all men and women are completely equal. Also, Gurbani (the text from Guru Granth Sahib) addresses to every individual (irrespective of gender) as a female. §Immigration issues: Common surname A section of around a million adherents of Sikhism who live abroad in western countries keep only Singh or Kaur as their last name. §See also §References §Sources
Krishna Krishna (Sanskrit: कृष्ण Kṛṣṇa in IAST, pronounced [ˈkr̩ʂɳə] ( According to the Bhagavata Purana, which is a sattvic purana, Krishna is termed as Svayam Bhagavan since he was the purna-avatara or full incarnation of the Supreme God Vishnu. Krishna is often described and portrayed as an infant or young boy playing a flute as in the Bhagavata Purana, or as a youthful prince giving direction and guidance as in the Bhagavad Gita. The stories of Krishna appear across a broad spectrum of Hindu philosophical and theological traditions. They portray him in various perspectives: a God-child, a prankster, a model lover, a divine hero and the supreme being. The principal scriptures discussing Krishna's story are the Mahabharata, the Harivamsa, the Bhagavata Purana, and the Vishnu Purana. Name and titles 14th-century Fresco of Krishna on interior wall City Palace, Udaipur As a name of Vishnu, Krishna listed as the 57th Name in the Vishnu Sahasranama. Iconography
Upanishads The Upanishads (/uːˈpænɪˌʃædz, uːˈpɑːnɪˌʃɑːdz/; singular: Sanskrit: उपनिषत्, IAST: Upaniṣat, IPA: [upəniʂət̪]; plural: Sanskrit: उपनिषदः) are a collection of texts in the Vedic Sanskrit language which contain the earliest emergence of some of the central religious concepts of Hinduism, some of which are shared with Buddhism and Jainism.[note 1][note 2] The Upanishads are considered by Hindus to contain revealed truths (Sruti) concerning the nature of ultimate reality (brahman) and describing the character and form of human salvation (moksha). The Upanishads are sometimes referred to as Vedanta ("Last part of Veda") when interpreted in the context of Uttara Mimamsa. But according to the Brahmasutra, the Upanishads address a different subject matter (inquisition into Brahman), and the subject matter of the Vedas is inquisition into ritual action. With the translation of the Upanishads in the early 19th century they also started to attract attention from a western audience.
Confucius Confucius (551–479 BC) was a Chinese teacher, editor, politician, and philosopher of the Spring and Autumn period of Chinese history. Confucius is traditionally credited with having authored or edited many of the Chinese classic texts including all of the Five Classics, but modern scholars are cautious of attributing specific assertions to Confucius himself. Aphorisms concerning his teachings were compiled in the Analects, but only many years after his death. Confucius's principles had a basis in common Chinese tradition and belief. He championed strong family loyalty, ancestor worship, respect of elders by their children and of husbands by their wives. Names Within the Analects, he is often referred to simply as "the Master" (子 Zǐ). Background Biography Early life Lu can be seen in China's northeast Confucius was born into the class of shi (士), between the aristocracy and the common people. Political career Exile Return home Philosophy Ethics 廄焚。 Analects X.11 (tr. 己所不欲，勿施於人。
Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire (Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت, Mug̱ẖliyah Salṭanat), self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was an empire extending over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and ruled by a dynasty of Chagatai-Turkic origin. In the early 16th century, northern India, being then under mainly Muslim rulers, fell to the superior mobility and firepower of the Mughals. The resulting Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under Akbar, the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status. The "classic period" of the empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Etymology History
Dharma Dharma ([dʱəɾmə]; Sanskrit: धर्म dharma, listen ; Pali: धम्म dhamma) is a key concept with multiple meanings in the Indian religions Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism and Jainism. There is no single word translation for dharma in western languages. The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma is a derivation from the root dhṛ, which has a meaning of "to hold, maintain, keep". Etymology The Classical Sanskrit noun dharma is a derivation from the root dhṛ, which means "to hold, maintain, keep",[note 3] and takes a meaning of "what is established or firm", and hence "law". It is derived from an older Vedic Sanskrit n-stem dharman-, with a literal meaning of "bearer, supporter", in a religious sense conceived as an aspect of Rta. In the Rigveda, the word appears as an n-stem, dhárman-, with a range of meanings encompassing "something established or firm" (in the literal sense of prods or poles). Definition Dharma root is "dhri", which means ‘to support, hold, or bear’. History
Lemuria (continent) The idea of Lemuria was subsequently incorporated into the proto-New Age philosophy of Theosophy and subsequently into general fringe belief. Accounts of Lemuria here differ. All share a common belief that a continent existed in ancient times and sank beneath the ocean as a result of a geological, often cataclysmic, change, such as pole shift, which such theorists anticipate will destroy and transform the modern world. Other scientists hypothesized that Lemuria had extended across parts of the Pacific oceans, seeking to explain the distribution of various species across Asia and the Americas. The Lemuria theory disappeared completely from conventional scientific consideration after the theories of plate tectonics and continental drift were accepted by the larger scientific community. Some Tamil writers such as Devaneya Pavanar have associated Lemuria with Kumari Kandam, a legendary sunken landmass mentioned in the Tamil literature, claiming that it was the cradle of civilization.
Kosha According to the Kosha system in Yogic philosophy, the nature of being human encompasses physical and psychological aspects that function as one holistic system. The Kosha system refers to these different aspects as layers of subjective experience. Layers range from the dense physical body to the more subtle levels of emotions, mind and spirit. Psychology refers to the emotional, mental and spiritual aspects of our being. Together, all aspects make up our subjective experience of being alive. The five sheaths (pancha-kosas) are alluded to in the fifteenth verse of Shankara's ATMABODHA. Annamaya kosha, appearance due foodstuffs-sheath (Anna)Pranamaya kosha, appearance due energies-sheath (Prana/apana)Manomaya kosha appearance due mind-stuff-sheath (Manas)Vijnanamaya kosha, appearance due wisdom-sheath (Vijnana)Anandamaya kosha, appearance due bliss-sheath (Ananda) The five sheaths Annamaya kosha Pranamaya kosha Manomaya kosha Vijnanamaya kosha See also
Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism,[n 1] or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, "combining a cosmogonic dualism and eschatological monotheism in a manner unique [...] among the major religions of the world". Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster (also known as Zarathustra), it exalts a deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda (Wise Lord), as its Supreme Being. Major features of Zoroastrianism, such as messianism, judgment after death, heaven and hell, and free will have influenced other religious systems, including Second Temple Judaism, Gnosticism, Christianity, and Islam. Following the Iranian Revolution and the arrival of the Islamic theocracy in Iran, Zoroastrianism/Mazdayasna is having a strong revival amongst many Iranians who want to express discontent towards the dictatorial theocratic regime. Terminology The name Zoroaster is a Greek rendering of the name Zarathustra. Overview Theology Practices History Classical antiquity Late antiquity
Dalai Lama The Dalai Lama /ˈdɑːlaɪ ˈlɑːmə/ is a high lama in the Gelug or "yellow Hat" school of Tibetan Buddhism, founded by Tsongkhapa (1357–1419). The name is a combination of the Mongolic word dalai meaning "ocean" and the Tibetan word བླ་མ་ (bla-ma) meaning "guru, teacher, mentor". For certain periods between the 17th century and 1962, the Dalai Lamas sometimes directed the Tibetan government, which administered portions of Tibet from Lhasa. History During 1252, Kublai Khan granted an audience to Drogön Chögyal Phagpa and Karma Pakshi, the 2nd Karmapa. Unification of Tibet In the 1630s, Tibet became entangled in power struggles between the rising Manchu and various Mongol and Oirat factions. The Fifth Dalai Lama's death was kept secret for fifteen years by the regent (Tibetan: སྡེ་སྲིད།, Wylie: sde-srid), Sanggye Gyatso. Tsangyang Gyatso, the Sixth Dalai Lama, was not enthroned until 1697. Throne awaiting Dalai Lama's return. Residence Lhamo Latso ...
Sri Yantra The Sri Chakra, frequently called the Sri Yantra. The Sri Yantra in diagrammatic form, showing how its nine interlocking triangles form a total of 43 smaller triangles. In a recent issue of Brahmavidya, the journal of the Adyar Library, Subhash Kak argues that the description of Sri Yantra is identical to the yantra described in the Śvetāśvatara Upanisad. Together the nine triangles are interlaced in such a way as to form 43 smaller triangles in a web symbolic of the entire cosmos or a womb symbolic of creation. Together they express Advaita or non-duality. This is surrounded by a lotus of eight petals, a lotus of sixteen petals, and an earth square resembling a temple with four doors. The various deities residing in the nine layers of the Sri Yantra are described in the Devi Khadgamala Mantra. The Shri Chakra is also known as the nav chakra because it can also be seen as having nine levels. Maha Meru Sri Chakra installed in temples References External links
Pineal gland The pineal gland, also known as the pineal body, conarium or epiphysis cerebri, is a small endocrine gland in the vertebrate brain. It produces the serotonin derivative melatonin, a hormone that affects the modulation of sleep patterns in the circadian rhythms and seasonal functions. Its shape resembles a tiny pine cone (hence its name), and it is located in the epithalamus, near the centre of the brain, between the two hemispheres, tucked in a groove where the two halves of the thalamus join. Nearly all vertebrate species possess a pineal gland. The gland has been compared to the photoreceptive, so-called third parietal eye present in the epithalamus of some animal species, which is also called the pineal eye. Structure The pineal gland is reddish-gray and about the size of a grain of rice (5–8 mm) in humans, located just rostro-dorsal to the superior colliculus and behind and beneath the stria medullaris, between the laterally positioned thalamic bodies. Blood supply
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Ottoman Turkish: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه, Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a Sunni Islamic state founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia. With conquests in the Balkans by Murad I between 1362 and 1389, the Ottoman sultanate was transformed into a transcontinental empire and claimant to caliphate. The Ottomans overthrew the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) by Mehmed II. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. Name History Rise (1299–1453) In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. Law