Kaur This article is about the term in Sikhism. For the town in Yemen, see Al Kawr. For the radio station, see KAUR. Kaur (Punjabi: ਕੌਰ) in Sikhism (meaning: "Always Pure") is a mandatory last name for all baptized female Sikhs. However, it is often used as a middle name though it is supposed to be a last name. §History Kaur is a name used by Sikh women as a last name. Kaur provides Sikh women with a status equal to all men. Sikh principles believe that all men and women are completely equal. Also, Gurbani (the text from Guru Granth Sahib) addresses to every individual (irrespective of gender) as a female. §Immigration issues: Common surname A section of around a million adherents of Sikhism who live abroad in western countries keep only Singh or Kaur as their last name. §See also §References §Sources
Mughal Empire The Mughal Empire (Urdu: مغلیہ سلطنت, Mug̱ẖliyah Salṭanat), self-designated as Gurkani (Persian: گورکانیان, Gūrkāniyān), was an empire extending over large parts of the Indian subcontinent and ruled by a dynasty of Chagatai-Turkic origin. In the early 16th century, northern India, being then under mainly Muslim rulers, fell to the superior mobility and firepower of the Mughals. The resulting Mughal Empire did not stamp out the local societies it came to rule, but rather balanced and pacified them through new administrative practices and diverse and inclusive ruling elites, leading to more systematic, centralised, and uniform rule. Eschewing tribal bonds and Islamic identity, especially under Akbar, the Mughals united their far-flung realms through loyalty, expressed through a Persianised culture, to an emperor who had near-divine status. The "classic period" of the empire started in 1556 with the ascension of Akbar the Great to the throne. Etymology History
Zoroastrianism Zoroastrianism,[n 1] or more natively Mazdayasna, is one of the world's oldest extant religions, "combining a cosmogonic dualism and eschatological monotheism in a manner unique [...] among the major religions of the world". Ascribed to the teachings of the Iranian-speaking prophet Zoroaster (also known as Zarathustra), it exalts a deity of wisdom, Ahura Mazda (Wise Lord), as its Supreme Being. Major features of Zoroastrianism, such as messianism, judgment after death, heaven and hell, and free will have influenced other religious systems, including Second Temple Judaism, Gnosticism, Christianity, and Islam. Following the Iranian Revolution and the arrival of the Islamic theocracy in Iran, Zoroastrianism/Mazdayasna is having a strong revival amongst many Iranians who want to express discontent towards the dictatorial theocratic regime. Terminology The name Zoroaster is a Greek rendering of the name Zarathustra. Overview Theology Practices History Classical antiquity Late antiquity
Ottoman Empire The Ottoman Empire (/ˈɒtəmən/; Ottoman Turkish: دَوْلَتِ عَلِيّهٔ عُثمَانِیّه, Devlet-i Aliyye-i Osmâniyye, Modern Turkish: Osmanlı İmparatorluğu or Osmanlı Devleti), also historically referred to as the Turkish Empire or Turkey, was a Sunni Islamic state founded in 1299 by Oghuz Turks under Osman I in northwestern Anatolia. With conquests in the Balkans by Murad I between 1362 and 1389, the Ottoman sultanate was transformed into a transcontinental empire and claimant to caliphate. The Ottomans overthrew the Byzantine Empire with the 1453 conquest of Constantinople (present-day Istanbul) by Mehmed II. With Constantinople as its capital and control of lands around the Mediterranean basin, the Ottoman Empire was at the centre of interactions between the Eastern and Western worlds for six centuries. Name History Rise (1299–1453) In the century after the death of Osman I, Ottoman rule began to extend over the Eastern Mediterranean and the Balkans. Law
D. H. Lawrence David Herbert Lawrence (11 September 1885 – 2 March 1930) was an English novelist, poet, playwright, essayist, literary critic and painter who published as D. H. Lawrence. Life and career Early life D. The fourth child of Arthur John Lawrence, a barely literate miner, and Lydia (née Beardsall), a former pupil teacher who, owing to her family's financial difficulties, had to do manual work in a lace factory, Lawrence spent his formative years in the coal mining town of Eastwood, Nottinghamshire. The young Lawrence attended Beauvale Board School (now renamed Greasley Beauvale D. Early career In March 1912 Lawrence met Frieda Weekley (née von Richthofen), with whom he was to share the rest of his life. From Germany they walked southwards across the Alps to Italy, a journey that was recorded in the first of his travel books, a collection of linked essays titled Twilight in Italy and the unfinished novel, Mr Noon. Exile Later life and career
Kingdom Tower Not to be confused with Kingdom Centre or Mile High Illinois Overview The building has been scaled down from its initial 1.6 km (about one mile) proposal, which was never fully designed, to a height of at least 1,000 metres (3,280.84 ft) (the exact height is being kept private while in development, similar to the Burj Khalifa),[A] which, at about one kilometre, would still make it by far the tallest building or structure in the world to date, standing at least 173 m (568 ft) taller than the Burj Khalifa in Dubai, United Arab Emirates. Timeline In May 2008, soil testing in the area cast doubt over whether the proposed location could support a skyscraper of the proposed one mile height, and MEED reported that the project had been scaled back, making it "up to 500 metres (1,640 ft) shorter In October 2010, the owners (Kingdom Holding Company) signed a development agreement with Emaar Properties PJSC. Design
New France Early exploration (1523–1650s) Around 1523, the Florentine navigator Giovanni da Verrazzano convinced the king, Francis I, to commission an expedition to find a western route to Cathay (China). Late that year, Verrazzano set sail in Dieppe, crossing the Atlantic on a small caravel with 50 men. After exploring the coast of the present-day Carolinas early the following year, he headed north along the coast, eventually anchoring in the Narrows of New York Bay. The first European to discover the site of present-day New York, he named it Nouvelle-Angoulême in honour of the king, the former count of Angoulême. Verrazzano’s voyage convinced the king to seek to establish a colony in the newly discovered land. Verrazzano gave the names Francesca and Nova Gallia to that land between New Spain (Mexico) and English Newfoundland. A map of New France made by Samuel de Champlain in 1612. French fishing fleets continued to sail to the Atlantic coast and into the St.
Glorious Revolution The Glorious Revolution,[b] also called the Revolution of 1688, was the overthrow of King James II of England (James VII of Scotland and James II of Ireland) by a union of English Parliamentarians with the Dutch stadtholder William III of Orange-Nassau (William of Orange). William's successful invasion of England with a Dutch fleet and army led to his ascending of the English throne as William III of England jointly with his wife Mary II of England. Internationally, the Revolution was related to the War of the Grand Alliance on mainland Europe. It has been seen as the last successful invasion of England. It ended all attempts by England in the Anglo-Dutch Wars of the 17th century to subdue the Dutch Republic by military force. Background James II King of England & James VII King of Scots, King of Ireland and Duke of Normandy When James inherited the English throne in 1685, he had much support in the 'Loyal Parliament', which was composed mostly of Tories. Conspiracy
Sikh This article is about the Sikh people. For information about the Sikh religion, see Sikhism. A Sikh (/siːk, sɪk/; Punjabi: ਸਿੱਖ sikkh [sɪkkʰ]) is a follower of Sikhism, a monotheistic religion which originated during the 15th century in the Punjab region of South Asia. The term "Sikh" has its origin in the Sanskrit words शिष्य (śiṣya; disciple, student) or शिक्ष (śikṣa; instruction). A Sikh, according to Article I of the Sikh Rehat Maryada (the Sikh code of conduct), is "any human being who faithfully believes in One Immortal Being; ten Gurus, from Guru Nanak to Guru Gobind Singh; Guru Granth Sahib; the teachings of the ten Gurus and the baptism bequeathed by the tenth Guru". "Sikh" properly refers to adherents of Sikhism as a religion, not an ethnic group. However, because Sikhism has seldom sought converts, most Sikhs share strong ethno-religious ties. §History Ranjit Singh, founder of the Sikh Confederacy, in an early 19th-century gathering §Five Ks
Sami people Traditionally, the Sami have pursued a variety of livelihoods, including coastal fishing, fur trapping, and sheep herding. Their best-known means of livelihood is semi-nomadic reindeer herding. Currently about 10% of the Sami are connected to reindeer herding and 2,800 are actively involved in herding on a full-time basis. For traditional, environmental, cultural and political reasons, reindeer herding is legally reserved only for Sami people in certain regions of the Nordic countries. Etymologies The first known historical mention of the Sami, naming them Fenni, was by Tacitus, about 98 CE. Variants of Finn or Fenni were in wide use in ancient times, judging from the names Fenni and Phinnoi in classical Roman and Greek works. In Sweden and Finland, Lapp is common in place names, such as Lappi (Länsi-Suomen lääni) and Lapinlahti (Itä-Suomen lääni) in Finland; and Lapp (Stockholm County), Lappe (Södermanland) and Lappabo (Småland) in Sweden. Homeland of the Sámi people
James Monroe Facing little opposition from the fractured Federalist Party, Monroe was easily elected president in 1816, winning over 80 percent of the electoral vote and becoming the last president during the First Party System era of American politics. As president, he bought Florida from Spain and sought to ease partisan tensions, embarking on a tour of the country that was generally well received. With the ratification of the Treaty of 1818, under the successful diplomacy of his Secretary of State John Quincy Adams, the United States extended from the Atlantic to the Pacific, giving America harbor and fishing rights in the Pacific Northwest. The United States and Britain jointly occupied the Oregon Country. Monroe supported the founding of colonies in Africa for free African Americans that would eventually form the nation of Liberia, whose capital, Monrovia, is named in his honor. Early life His paternal great-grandfather Andrew Monroe emigrated to America from Scotland in the mid-17th century.
Missouri Compromise The United States in 1819 (the light orange and light green areas were not then part of the United States). The Missouri Compromise prohibited slavery in the unorganized territory of the Great Plains (upper dark green) and permitted it in Missouri (yellow) and the Arkansas Territory (lower blue area). The Missouri Compromise was effectively repealed by the Kansas–Nebraska Act, submitted to Congress by Stephen A. Although already superseded by the Kansas–Nebraska Act, the Supreme Court indicated that the Missouri Compromise was unconstitutional in the 1857 Dred Scott v. Development in Congress To balance the number of "slave states" and "free states," the northern region of what was then Massachusetts ultimately gained admittance into the United States as a free state to become Maine. The Senate decided to connect the two measures. The vote in the Senate was 24 for the compromise, to 20 against. Second Missouri Compromise Impact on political discourse Repeal
Trail of Tears Many Native Americans suffered from exposure, disease and starvation on the route to their destinations. Many died, including 2,000-6,000 of 16,542 relocated Cherokee. European Americans, Jews, and African American freedmen and slaves also participated in the Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee Creek and Seminole forced relocations. In 1831, the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Muscogee Creek, and Seminole (sometimes collectively referred to as the Five Civilized Tribes) were living as autonomous nations in what would be called the American Deep South. In 1831 the Choctaw were the first to be removed, and they became the model for all other removals. Legal background Map of United States Indian Removal, 1830-1835. The statutory argument for Native American sovereignty persisted until the Supreme Court ruled in Cherokee Nation v. Choctaw removal In 1832 a young 22-year-old Harkins wrote the Farewell Letter to the American People. Seminole resistance Creek dissolution
Five Civilized Tribes Gallery of the Five Civilized Tribes. The portraits were drawn or painted between 1775 and 1850. The Five Civilized Tribes were the five Native American nations—the Cherokee, Chickasaw, Choctaw, Creek (Muscogee), and Seminole—that were considered civilized by Anglo-European settlers during the colonial and early federal period because they adopted many of the colonists' customs and had generally good relations with their neighbors. History George Washington and Henry Knox proposed cultural transformation for Native Americans; the Cherokee and Choctaw were successful at integrating aspects of European-American culture which they found useful. Routes of southern removals to the first Indian Territory of the Five Civilized Tribes. Once the tribes had been relocated to Indian Territory, the United States government promised that their lands would be free of white settlement. Experiment of civilizing Cherokee Chickasaw Choctaw Muscogee Creek Seminole