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Commons-based peer production

Commons-based peer production
Commons-based peer production is a term coined by Harvard Law School professor Yochai Benkler.[1] It describes a new model of socio-economic production in which the creative energy of large numbers of people is coordinated (usually with the aid of the Internet) into large, meaningful projects mostly without traditional hierarchical organization. These projects are often, but not always, conceived without financial compensation for contributors. The term is often used interchangeably with the term social production. Yochai Benkler contrasts commons-based peer production with firm production (in which tasks are delegated based on a central decision-making process) and market-based production (in which tagging different prices to different tasks serves as an incentive to anyone interested in performing a task). Aaron Krowne offered another definition in the Free Software Magazine: Principles[edit] First, the potential goals of peer production must be modular. Examples[edit] Outgrowths[edit]

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Environmental Life Cycle Analysis of Distributed Three-Dimensional Printing and Conventional Manufacturing of Polymer Products - ACS Sustainable Chemistry & Engineering †Department of Materials Science & Engineering and ‡Department of Electrical & Computer Engineering, Michigan Technological University, Houghton, Michigan, United States ACS Sustainable Chem. Eng., 2013, 1 (12), pp 1511–1519 DOI: 10.1021/sc400093k Publication Date (Web): September 23, 2013 Peer production Peer production occurs in a socio-technical system which allows thousands of individuals to effectively cooperate to create a non-exclusive given outcome.[5] These collective efforts are informal. Peer production is a collaborative effort with no limit to the amount of discussion or changes that can be made to the product. However, as in the case of Wikipedia, a large amount, in fact the majority, of this collaborative effort is maintained by very few devoted and active individuals.[6]

Prosumer Prosumer is a portmanteau originally formed by contracting professional with the word consumer.[1][2] In a commercial environment, it describes a market segment between professional and consumer. For example, a prosumer grade digital camera is a "cross" between consumer grade and professional grade.[3][4]

3-D Printing Will Change the World To anyone who hasn’t seen it demonstrated, 3-D printing sounds futuristic—like the meals that materialized in the Jetsons’ oven at the touch of a keypad. But the technology is quite straightforward: It is a small evolutionary step from spraying toner on paper to putting down layers of something more substantial (such as plastic resin) until the layers add up to an object. And yet, by enabling a machine to produce objects of any shape, on the spot and as needed, 3-D printing really is ushering in a new era. As applications of the technology expand and prices drop, the first big implication is that more goods will be manufactured at or close to their point of purchase or consumption. This might even mean household-level production of some things. Open-source hardware Open source hardware consists of physical artifacts of technology designed and offered by the open design movement. Both free and open source software (FOSS) as well as open source hardware is created by this open source culture movement and applies a like concept to a variety of components. The term usually means that information about the hardware is easily discerned. Hardware design (i.e. mechanical drawings, schematics, bills of material, PCB layout data, HDL source code and integrated circuit layout data), in addition to the software that drives the hardware, are all released with the FOSS approach.

Gartner Remains Cautious Over Consumer Level 3D Printing Market leading IT research and advisory firm, Gartner, suggests a minimum of five to ten years for the consumer level adoption of 3D printing. This timeline is inline with many expert predictions on the highly anticipated boom in home based 3D printing. “Consumer 3D printing is around five to ten years away from mainstream adoption,” said Pete Basiliere, research vice president at Gartner. Hackerspace Activities[edit] Many hackerspaces participate in the use and development of free software, open hardware, and alternative media. They are often physically located in infoshops, social centers, adult education centers, public schools, public libraries or on university campuses, but may relocate to industrial or warehouse space when they need more room. Hackerspaces with open membership became common within Germany in the 90s in the orbit of the German Chaos Computer Club, with the C-base being probably the most impressive example. The concept however was limited to less than a dozen of spaces within Germany, and did not spread beyond borders at first. Most likely this was because initial founding costs were prohibitive for small groups without the support of a large organization like the CCC.

“From Consumer to Prosumer to Produser: Who Keeps Shifting My Paradigm? (We Do!)” in Volume 21, Number 3 Claudia K. Grinnell Buzz, Buzz, Buzz: Web 2.0 Less than ten years after going mainstream, the Web returns to its roots as a read/write tool while entering a new, more social and participatory phase. Many interactive features of the Web have merged into a trend many now are calling Web 2.0 — “a new and improved Web.” Disruptions: 3-D Printing Is on the Fast Track Will the future be printed in 3-D? At first glance, looking at past predictions about the future of technology, prognosticators got a whole lot wrong. The Web is a garbage dump of inaccurate guesses about the year 2000, 2010 and beyond. Flying cars, robotic maids and jet packs still are nowhere near a reality. Yet the prediction that 3-D printers will become a part of our daily lives is happening much sooner than anyone anticipated.

Open design RepRap general-purpose 3D printer that not only could be used to make structures and functional components for open-design projects but is an open-source project itself. Uzebox is an open-design video game console.[1] Zoybar open source guitar kit With 3-D printed body[4] Open design is the development of physical products, machines and systems through use of publicly shared design information. Open design involves the making of both free and open-source software (FOSS) as well as open-source hardware.

Crowd Business Models Click on the image to Download in PDF This is our Crowd Business Models framework, which groups the 22 categories of crowdsourcing services shown in our Crowdsourcing Landscape into 8 business models, including non-profit. The second page shows the monetization models and success factors for each business model. Below is Chapter 22, which goes into more detail in describing each of the elements of the Crowd Business Models framework. Getting Results From Crowds: Chapter 22 – Crowd Business Models

3D Printers That Use Recycled Plastic - 3D Printing Hub 13 Flares Google+ 1 Facebook 11 Twitter 1 Pin It Share 0 Email -- Email to a friend 13 Flares × Yes, the 3d printer is cool, and it can print anything you want, whenever, wherever… But you still have to fill ‘em with €25 plastic spools. If it were only a little cheaper to use them… Or is it? Well, now you can! Researchers at Michigan Technological University have created a 3d extruder, called Filabot, that turns old plastic that you were going to recycle anyway (of course you were) into usable filament for 3d printing. The Filabot takes 4-inch pieces of used plastic and shreds it before melting it down and extruding it through changeable nozzles.