APARTHEID - ARTICLES, VIDEOS, PICTURES & FACTS In 1976, when thousands of black children in Soweto, a black township outside Johannesburg, demonstrated against the Afrikaans language requirement for black African students, the police opened fire with tear gas and bullets. The protests and government crackdowns that followed, combined with a national economic recession, drew more international attention to South Africa and shattered all illusions that apartheid had brought peace or prosperity to the nation. The United Nations General Assembly had denounced apartheid in 1973, and in 1976 the UN Security Council voted to impose a mandatory embargo on the sale of arms to South Africa. In 1985, the United Kingdom and United States imposed economic sanctions on the country. Under pressure from the international community, the National Party government of Pieter Botha sought to institute some reforms, including abolition of the pass laws and the ban on interracial sex and marriage.
We Shall Overcome -- Selma-to-Montgomery March The Selma-to-Montgomery March for voting rights ended three weeks--and three events--that represented the political and emotional peak of the modern civil rights movement. On "Bloody Sunday," March 7, 1965, some 600 civil rights marchers headed east out of Selma on U.S. Route 80. They got only as far as the Edmund Pettus Bridge six blocks away, where state and local lawmen attacked them with billy clubs and tear gas and drove them back into Selma. Two days later on March 9, Martin Luther King, Jr., led a "symbolic" march to the bridge. Then civil rights leaders sought court protection for a third, full-scale march from Selma to the state capitol in Montgomery. Itinerary Home | List of Sites | Main Map | Learn More | Next Site
Ku Klux Klan - MSN Encarta A Century of Racial Segregation 1849–1950 - Brown v. Board at Fifty: "With an Even Hand" | Exhibitions An elementary school in Hurlock, Maryland, ca. 1935. Gelatin silver print. Visual Material from the NAACP Records, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (20A). Courtesy of the NAACP. [Digital ID# cph 3c26579] After the abolition of slavery in the United States, three Constitutional amendments were passed to grant newly freed African Americans legal status: the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery, the Fourteenth provided citizenship, and the Fifteenth guaranteed the right to vote. Beginning in 1909, a small group of activists organized and founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discover! Imprisoned for Teaching Free Blacks The prohibition of education for African Americans had deep roots in American history. Margaret Crittenden Douglass. Upholding School Segregation: The Roberts Case Five-year-old Sara Roberts was forced to walk past several white schools to reach the “colored” primary school. Charles Sumner. Plessy v. Phillip B.
The 1950-60's Black Civil Rights Movement in America The actions of the 1900's black civil rights movement, and a brief outline of the events that occurred. America is advertised as the world's greatest democracy, the land of freedom and equality. However, as little as 40 years ago this slogan was far from the truth. African-Americans were discriminated against constantly, tortured and killed for no other reason than their skin color. This was the period of the Black Civil Rights movement, which saw the birth of many modern-day heroes such as Martin Luther King. The first real success of the Black Civil Rights movement was the attempt to desegregate primary schools in a case called "Brown vs Board". In 1st December 1955, a national hero was introduced whom would prove to be a very big component in the Black Civil Rights movement. Non-violent protests were starting to gain in power, due to the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott. In 1963, MLK decided on his new target: Birmingham.
Bloody Sunday, Selma, Alabama, (March 7, 1965) Alabama State Troopers Attack John Lewis at the Edmund Pettis Bridge "Image Ownership: Public Domain" Between 1961 and 1964, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) had led a voting registration campaign in Selma, the seat of Dallas County, Alabama, a small town with a record of consistent resistance to black voting. When SNCC’s efforts were frustrated by stiff resistance from the county law enforcement officials, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) were persuaded by local activists to make Selma’s intransigence to black voting a national concern. SCLC also hoped to use the momentum of the 1964 Civil Rights Act to win federal protection for a voting rights statute. During January and February, 1965, King and SCLC led a series of demonstrations to the Dallas County Courthouse. “Bloody Sunday” was televised around the world.
Ku Klux Klan At the end of the American Civil War radical members of Congress attempted to destroy the white power structure of the Rebel states. The Freeman's Bureau was established by Congress on 3rd March, 1865. The bureau was designed to protect the interests of former slaves. This included helping them to find new employment and to improve educational and health facilities. Attempts by Congress to extend the powers of the Freemen's Bureau was vetoed by President Andrew Johnson in February, 1866. The election of 1866 increased the number of Radical Republicans in Congress. The first branch of the Ku Klux Klan was established in Pulaski, Tennessee, in May, 1866. At first the main objective of white supremacy organizations such as the Ku Klux Klan, the White Brotherhood, the Men of Justice, the Constitutional Union Guards and the Knights of the White Camelia was to stop black people from voting. Radical Republicans in Congress such as Benjamin Butler urged President Ulysses S.
Black Civil Rights….America in the 1950′s | Peacemakervoices's Blog The Black Civil Rights Movement (CRM) campaigned to end Racism and Inequality for black people between 1955 and 1968. Before the CRM many towns and cities in America were segregated- black people could not use the same building entrance as a white person, eat in the same cafe, sit in the same taxi or use the same drinking fountain. Not only that, the police, judges and juries were all white and the laws supported these inequalities. The CRM challenged not only the laws but people’s attitudes- attitudes that saw black people being treated as inferior citizens because of the colour of their skin. People like Martin Luther King Jr used non-violent civil disobedience to challenge laws that enforced segregation. Supported by the then President, John F Kennedy, the movement grew and laws began to change. Ryan (16) Peer Educator: This week we focused on the Black Civil Rights Movement. Siofra (20) Manchester University Student: Thoroughly enjoyed the session. Like this: Like Loading...
Ku Klux Klan - Facts & Summary In 1915, white Protestant nativists organized a revival of the Ku Klux Klan near Atlanta, Georgia, inspired by their romantic view of the Old South as well as Thomas Dixon’s 1905 book “The Clansman” and D.W. Griffith’s 1915 film “Birth of a Nation.” This second generation of the Klan was not only anti-black but also took a stand against Roman Catholics, Jews, foreigners and organized labor. It was fueled by growing hostility to the surge in immigration that America experienced in the early 20th century along with fears of communist revolution akin to the Bolshevik triumph in Russia in 1917. The organization took as its symbol a burning cross and held rallies, parades and marches around the country. At its peak in the 1920s, Klan membership exceeded 4 million people nationwide. The Great Depression in the 1930s depleted the Klan’s membership ranks, and the organization temporarily disbanded in 1944.