Civil Rights Movement: Struggle for Integration The Civil Rights Movement is sometimes defined as a struggle against racial segregation that began in 1955 when Rosa Parks, the "seamstress with tired feet," refused to give up her seat to a white man on a bus in Alabama. Brown v. Board of Education, the 1954 Supreme Court case that attacked the notion of "separate but equal," has also been identified as the catalyst for this extraordinary period of organized boycotts, student protests, and mass marches. These legendary events, however, did not cause the modern Civil Rights Movement, but were instead important moments in a campaign of direct action that began two decades before the first sit-in demonstration. The story of the American Civil Rights Movement is one of those tales that is told again and again and again, often with a few protagonists, a couple of key events, and one dramatic conclusion. Right? Well, not really. Absolutely. So, when did that movement emerge and how? Nope. Without a doubt!
APARTHEID - ARTICLES, VIDEOS, PICTURES & FACTS In 1976, when thousands of black children in Soweto, a black township outside Johannesburg, demonstrated against the Afrikaans language requirement for black African students, the police opened fire with tear gas and bullets. The protests and government crackdowns that followed, combined with a national economic recession, drew more international attention to South Africa and shattered all illusions that apartheid had brought peace or prosperity to the nation. The United Nations General Assembly had denounced apartheid in 1973, and in 1976 the UN Security Council voted to impose a mandatory embargo on the sale of arms to South Africa. In 1985, the United Kingdom and United States imposed economic sanctions on the country. Under pressure from the international community, the National Party government of Pieter Botha sought to institute some reforms, including abolition of the pass laws and the ban on interracial sex and marriage.
We Shall Overcome -- Selma-to-Montgomery March The Selma-to-Montgomery March for voting rights ended three weeks--and three events--that represented the political and emotional peak of the modern civil rights movement. On "Bloody Sunday," March 7, 1965, some 600 civil rights marchers headed east out of Selma on U.S. Route 80. They got only as far as the Edmund Pettus Bridge six blocks away, where state and local lawmen attacked them with billy clubs and tear gas and drove them back into Selma. Two days later on March 9, Martin Luther King, Jr., led a "symbolic" march to the bridge. Then civil rights leaders sought court protection for a third, full-scale march from Selma to the state capitol in Montgomery. Itinerary Home | List of Sites | Main Map | Learn More | Next Site
Racism Still Divides Black and White America | The Center for Public Justice May-June 1991 A Discussion with Tom Skinner PITTSBURGH—[The featured speaker at this year's jubilee Conference, February 22-24, sponsored by the Coalition for Christian Outreach, was evangelist Tom Skinner. Late Saturday night in the hotel lounge, Mr. Question: Why do so many black Americans experience discrimination today after so much progress in civil rights reform over the last four decades? Skinner: African Americans made the mistake of buying the message of "the American melting pot under God." African Americans let the white majority into their political and economic lives without whites letting African Americans into their lives. Question: But what about changes in the law—after Supreme Court decisions such as Brown vs. Skinner: There were only three major Supreme Court decisions that affected African Americans. Question: Why? Skinner: Under segregation we built and were in charge of our own institutions. Question: Whose idea was integration? Question: But do you know white people?
The 1950-60's Black Civil Rights Movement in America The actions of the 1900's black civil rights movement, and a brief outline of the events that occurred. America is advertised as the world's greatest democracy, the land of freedom and equality. However, as little as 40 years ago this slogan was far from the truth. African-Americans were discriminated against constantly, tortured and killed for no other reason than their skin color. This was the period of the Black Civil Rights movement, which saw the birth of many modern-day heroes such as Martin Luther King. The first real success of the Black Civil Rights movement was the attempt to desegregate primary schools in a case called "Brown vs Board". In 1st December 1955, a national hero was introduced whom would prove to be a very big component in the Black Civil Rights movement. Non-violent protests were starting to gain in power, due to the successful Montgomery Bus Boycott. In 1963, MLK decided on his new target: Birmingham.
Bloody Sunday, Selma, Alabama, (March 7, 1965) Alabama State Troopers Attack John Lewis at the Edmund Pettis Bridge "Image Ownership: Public Domain" Between 1961 and 1964, the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) had led a voting registration campaign in Selma, the seat of Dallas County, Alabama, a small town with a record of consistent resistance to black voting. When SNCC’s efforts were frustrated by stiff resistance from the county law enforcement officials, Martin Luther King, Jr. and the Southern Christian Leadership Conference (SCLC) were persuaded by local activists to make Selma’s intransigence to black voting a national concern. SCLC also hoped to use the momentum of the 1964 Civil Rights Act to win federal protection for a voting rights statute. During January and February, 1965, King and SCLC led a series of demonstrations to the Dallas County Courthouse. “Bloody Sunday” was televised around the world.
A Century of Racial Segregation 1849–1950 - Brown v. Board at Fifty: "With an Even Hand" | Exhibitions An elementary school in Hurlock, Maryland, ca. 1935. Gelatin silver print. Visual Material from the NAACP Records, Prints and Photographs Division, Library of Congress (20A). Courtesy of the NAACP. [Digital ID# cph 3c26579] After the abolition of slavery in the United States, three Constitutional amendments were passed to grant newly freed African Americans legal status: the Thirteenth Amendment abolished slavery, the Fourteenth provided citizenship, and the Fifteenth guaranteed the right to vote. Beginning in 1909, a small group of activists organized and founded the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP). Discover! Imprisoned for Teaching Free Blacks The prohibition of education for African Americans had deep roots in American history. Margaret Crittenden Douglass. Upholding School Segregation: The Roberts Case Five-year-old Sara Roberts was forced to walk past several white schools to reach the “colored” primary school. Charles Sumner. Plessy v. Phillip B.
Ku Klux Klan - Facts & Summary In 1915, white Protestant nativists organized a revival of the Ku Klux Klan near Atlanta, Georgia, inspired by their romantic view of the Old South as well as Thomas Dixon’s 1905 book “The Clansman” and D.W. Griffith’s 1915 film “Birth of a Nation.” This second generation of the Klan was not only anti-black but also took a stand against Roman Catholics, Jews, foreigners and organized labor. It was fueled by growing hostility to the surge in immigration that America experienced in the early 20th century along with fears of communist revolution akin to the Bolshevik triumph in Russia in 1917. The organization took as its symbol a burning cross and held rallies, parades and marches around the country. At its peak in the 1920s, Klan membership exceeded 4 million people nationwide. The Great Depression in the 1930s depleted the Klan’s membership ranks, and the organization temporarily disbanded in 1944.
Ten Things You Should Know About Selma Before You See the Film In this 50th anniversary year of the Selma-to-Montgomery March and the Voting Rights Act it helped inspire, national media will focus on the iconic images of “Bloody Sunday,” the words of Dr. Martin Luther King Jr., the interracial marchers, and President Lyndon Johnson signing the Voting Rights Act. This version of history, emphasizing a top-down narrative and isolated events, reinforces the master narrative which civil rights activists describe as, “Rosa sat down, Martin stood up, and the white folks came South to save the day.” But there is a “people’s history” of Selma that we all can learn from—one that is needed especially now. A march of 15,000 in Harlem in solidarity with the Selma voting rights struggle. Here are 10 points to keep in mind about Selma’s civil rights history. 1. Mrs. 2. In 1963, seasoned activists Colia (Liddell) and Bernard Lafayette came to Selma as field staff for the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC), known as “Snick.” 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.