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Comet (programming)

Comet (programming)
Comet is a web application model in which a long-held HTTP request allows a web server to push data to a browser, without the browser explicitly requesting it.[1][2] Comet is an umbrella term, encompassing multiple techniques for achieving this interaction. All these methods rely on features included by default in browsers, such as JavaScript, rather than on non-default plugins. The Comet approach differs from the original model of the web, in which a browser requests a complete web page at a time.[3] The use of Comet techniques in web development predates the use of the word Comet as a neologism for the collective techniques. Comet is known by several other names, including Ajax Push,[4][5] Reverse Ajax,[6] Two-way-web,[7] HTTP Streaming,[7] and HTTP server push[8] among others.[9] Even if not yet known by that name, the very first Comet implementations date back to 2000,[18] with the Pushlets, Lightstreamer, and KnowNow projects.

Related:  AJAX

Same origin policy This mechanism bears a particular significance for modern web applications that extensively depend on HTTP cookies to maintain authenticated user sessions, as servers act based on the HTTP cookie information to reveal sensitive information or take state-changing actions. A strict separation between content provided by unrelated sites must be maintained on the client side to prevent the loss of data confidentiality or integrity. History[edit] The concept of same-origin policy dates back to Netscape Navigator 2 in 1995. All modern browsers implement some form of the Same-Origin Policy as it is an important security cornerstone.[2] The policies are not required to match an exact specification [3] but are often extended to define roughly compatible security boundaries for other web technologies, such as Microsoft Silverlight, Adobe Flash, or Adobe Acrobat, or for mechanisms other than direct DOM manipulation, such as XMLHttpRequest. Origin determination rules[edit]

HTML WebSockets WebSocket is a protocol providing full-duplex communications channels over a single TCP connection. The WebSocket protocol was standardized by the IETF as RFC 6455 in 2011, and the WebSocket API in Web IDL is being standardized by the W3C. Technical overview[edit] Browser implementation[edit] WebSocket protocol handshake[edit] Push technology General use[edit] Push services are often based on information preferences expressed in advance. This is called a publish/subscribe model. A client "subscribes" to various information "channels" provided by a server; whenever new content is available on one of those channels, the server pushes that information out to the client. Synchronous conferencing and instant messaging are typical examples of push services.

Asynchronous XMLHttpRequests with XhrIo - Closure Tools Overview JavaScript's XMLHttpRequest enables the responsive, persistent user interfaces that characterize AJAX applications. Web applications can use XMLHttpRequest to communicate with the server from JavaScript without reloading the page or blocking. But while most modern browsers support XMLHttpRequest, different browsers have different implementations. Web Service Architecture A Web service is a method of communications between two electronic devices over a network. It is a software function provided at a network address over the web with the service always on as in the concept of utility computing. The W3C defines a Web service as:

XMLHttpRequest Level 2 Abstract The XMLHttpRequest specification defines an API that provides scripted client functionality for transferring data between a client and a server. Status of this Document This section describes the status of this document at the time of its publication. Other documents may supersede this document. Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) CoRE Working Group Z. Shelby Internet-Draft Sensinode Intended status: Standards Track K. Hartke Expires: December 30, 2013 C. Bormann Universitaet Bremen TZI June 28, 2013 Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) draft-ietf-core-coap-18 Abstract The Constrained Application Protocol (CoAP) is a specialized web transfer protocol for use with constrained nodes and constrained (e.g., low-power, lossy) networks. The nodes often have 8-bit microcontrollers with small amounts of ROM and RAM, while constrained networks such as 6LoWPAN often have high packet error rates and a typical throughput of 10s of kbit/s. The protocol is designed for machine-to-machine (M2M) applications such as smart energy and building automation.

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