Gold rush Sailing to California at the beginning of the Gold Rush A gold rush is a period of feverish migration of workers to an area that has had a dramatic discovery of gold deposits. Major gold rushes took place in the 19th century in Australia, New Zealand, Brazil, Canada, South Africa, and the United States, while smaller gold rushes took place elsewhere. In the 19th and early 20th centuries, there were several major gold rushes. Gold rushes were typically marked by a general buoyant feeling of a "free for all" in income mobility, in which any single individual might become abundantly wealthy almost instantly, as expressed in the California Dream. Gold rushes helped spur a huge immigration that often led to permanent settlement of new regions and define a significant part of the culture of the Australian and North American frontiers. Life cycle of a gold rush A man leans over a wooden sluice. A rush typically begins with the discovery of placer gold made by an individual. Australia
The Australian Gold Rush www.patricktaylor.com | articles First published April 28th, 2006 The Australian Gold Rush - Diggers (State Library of NSW) Many people associate the Gold Rush with California or the Klondike, but the Australian gold rush remains the world's richest. The discovery of Australian gold Isolated gold finds had been reported in New South Wales since the 1820s, but it was another thirty years before a fully-fledged gold rush would take its hold on the British penal colonies in Australia. In February 1851 Hargraves took his pan and rocking-cradle and with his guide, John Lister, set out on horseback to Lewes Pond Creek, a tributary of the Macquarie River close to Bathurst. Word spread quickly and within a few days 100 diggers were frantically tunnelling for instant wealth. Edward Hargraves did not make a fortune from gold. The discovery in New South Wales and the resulting rush of labour from the adjoining state of Victoria prompted the Governor of Victoria, Charles J. The British perspective
Gold! Gold Rush in Australia Gold is found in rocks and in the ground. People came to look for gold in Australia. Gold is a soft, yellow precious metal. Gold in California and Australia In 1851, during the time that there was a gold rush in California USA, a gold rush began in Australia. However, in Australia, it was not unusual for gold nuggets, some very large, to be found. The California Goldfields. The Largest Australian Nuggets In October 1872 Holtermann's Nugget was found. The Australian gold rush begins Small amounts of gold were found in New South Wales in the early days of the colony, but the authorities hushed it up. Within a week there were over 400 people digging there for gold, and by June there were 2000. Between 1851 and 1861, Australia produced one third of the world's gold. The Victorian goldfields In August 1851, part of New South Wales was made a separate colony, and was named Victoria after the Queen. Click here to see a map showing a few of the main Australian goldfields.
Sovereign Hill The gold diggings Set in the Australian 1850s, the complex is located on a 25-hectare site that is linked to the richest alluvial gold rush in the world. The site comprises over 60 historically recreated buildings, with costumed staff and volunteers, who are able to answer questions and will pose for photos. The recreation is completed with antiques, artwork, books and papers, machinery, livestock and animals, carriages, and devices all appropriate to the era2. History Second largest gold nugget in the world—was also found in Ballarat in the Red Hill mine which is recreated in Sovereign Hill. The idea of Sovereign Hill was floated in Ballarat in the 1960s, as a way to preserve historic buildings, and to recreate the gold diggings that made the city. Main street is a loose reconstruction of Main Street, Ballarat East which was once the settlement's main street, consisting of timber buildings. Attractions A bakery and other assorted shops on main street. References
Eureka Stockade The Eureka Flag based on the constellation of the Southern Cross. Image courtesy of the The , which is often referred to as the 'Eureka Stockade', is a key event in the development of Australian democracy and Australian identity, with some people arguing that Australian democracy was born at Eureka' (Clive Evatt). In addition, the principles of mateship, seen to be adapted by the gold diggers, and the term digger' was later adopted by the ANZAC soldiers in World War I. The rebellion came about because the goldfield workers (known as 'diggers') opposed the government miners' licences. Population of the goldfields The population of the Victorian goldfields peaked in 1858 at 150,000. Between 1851 and 1860, an estimated 300,000 people came to Australian colonies from England and Wales, with another 100,000 from Scotland and 84,000 from Ireland. 1854 - the year of the rebellion The Social Order Notice. Official corruption was another concern for the diggers. The Eureka Stockade The Eureka legacy
John Dunn (bushranger) Memorial to Nelson at Collector Inscription on memorial to Nelson John Dunn (14 December 1846 – 19 March 1866) was an Australian bushranger. He was born at Murrumburrah near Yass, New South Wales. He was 19 years old when he was hanged in Darlinghurst Gaol. He was buried in the former Devonshire Street cemetery in Sydney. In May, Hall, Gilbert, and Dunn were proclaimed outlaws; the passing into law the Felons Apprehension Act 1865, which allowed known bushrangers to be shot and killed rather than taken to trial, this put them outside the law and liable to be killed by anyone. Gibert and Dunn on hearing the news of Hall's death headed for Dunn's grandfather's property at Murrumbarrah. Gilbert's grave near Binalong Senior Constable Charles Hales of the Binalong police station received information at 8pm on 12 May 1865 that the two bushrangers had "stuck up" the woolshed near Murrumburrah. The troopers watched for about an hour in the rain.
Sovereign Hill Education - Research Notes Welcome to Sovereign Hill Education Victoria’s 1850s goldrush heritage is alive, exciting and very hands-on at Sovereign Hill with creative, stimulating and interactive experiences for school students and kindergarten classes. Students experience Sovereign Hill indoors, outdoors, above-ground and below-ground, giving a tremendous variety for school excursions and ensuring an action-packed, fun day. Sovereign Hill Education Sovereign Hill Education provides programs that are developed and delivered by Sovereign Hill Education officers, who are all experienced teachers. Costumed Schools Program The Sovereign Hill Costumed School Program is a unique, two-day costumed role-play experience where children are fully immersed in the 1850s, learning about manners, costume, behaviour and re-living the discipline of school life on the goldfields. Narmbool Narmbool is a magnificent 2,000 hectare pastoral property at Elaine, approximately 30 minutes’ drive from Ballarat and 90 minutes from Melbourne.
Bushrangers: John Dunn "Through the influence of his grandfather, Dunn was invited to join Ben Hall and John Gilbert's bushranging gang. His father chased after him for two days to try and rescue him. Dunn's wild adventure went horribly wrong. John Dunn (14 December 1846 – 19 March 1866) John Dunn was born near Yass, NSW. Dunn joined Ben Hall's gang in 1864 robbing coaches, stations, inns, and stores. John Dunn was buried in the Devonshire Street cemetery. The reward for the capture of the Ben Hall,John Gilbert and John Dunn had been substantial sum of 1,000 pounds each.
Australian Gold Rush: 1850 The bonanza in California was only the beginning. An Australian named Edward Hammond Hargraves, who had been there, was certain that the same geological features were to be found in his own country. Returning on the boat from California late in 1850, he predicted that he would find gold within a week. The news of the fresh gold field reached England, along with the first gold, aboard the Thomas Arbuthnot. In fact, Hargraves had touched only the fringe of Australian gold. Other secondary rushes followed.
Ned Kelly Edward "Ned" Kelly (December 1854 – 11 November 1880) was an Australian bushranger of Irish descent. Kelly was born in the town of Beveridge in the British colony of Victoria to an Irish convict from County Tipperary and an Australian mother with Irish parentage. When Kelly was 12, his father died after a six-month stint in prison for unlawful possession of a bullock hide. During the remainder of "The Kelly Outbreak", Kelly and his associates committed numerous armed robberies and fatally shot Aaron Sherritt, a known police informant. A final violent confrontation between the Kelly Gang and the Victoria Police took place at Glenrowan on 28 June 1880. Even before his execution, Kelly had become a legendary figure in Australia. Family background and early life Kelly's boyhood home, built by his father in Beveridge in 1859 At age 11, Kelly saved a young boy from drowning in a creek and was awarded this green sash in recognition of his bravery. Rise to notoriety Harry Power
Australian gold rushes An Australian gold diggings circa 1855 After the California gold rush began in 1848, causing many people to leave Australia for California to look for gold there, the New South Wales government rethought its position, and sought approval from the Colonial Office in England to allow the exploitation of the mineral resources and also offered rewards for the finding of payable gold. The first gold rush in Australia began in May 1851 after prospector Edward Hargraves claimed to have discovered payable gold near Bathurst, at a site he called Ophir. Hargraves had been to the Californian goldfields and had learned new gold prospecting techniques such as panning and cradling. Hargraves was offered a reward by both the Colony of New South Wales and the Colony of Victoria. Before the end of the year, the gold rush had spread to many other parts of the state where gold had been found, not just to the west, but also to the south and north of Sydney. Pre-rush gold finds F. At E.
Early Australian bushrangers McFarlane & Erskine, Gold escort attacked by bushrangers, 187-, print: lithograph. Image courtesy of the : nla.pic-an8420450. Bushranging - living off the land and being supported by or stealing from free settlers - was either chosen as a preferred way of life by escaped or was a result of the lack of supplies in the early settlements. Australia's bushranging period spanned nearly 100 years, from the first convict bushrangers active from 1790 to the 1860s, through the of the 1860s and 1870s who were able to be shot on sight, to the shooting of the in 1880. While many bushrangers had populist reputations for being 'Robin Hood' figures; some bushrangers were brutal and others harassed the and diggers returning from the goldfields. Escaped convicts Bushranging began soon after the . In the early days of Van Dieman's Land (now Tasmania) the settlement was faced with starvation due to the failure of supply ships to arrive. The first bushrangers, 1790s - 1820s The Wild Colonial Boy Useful links