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Brain Images Reveal the Secret to Higher IQ

Brain Images Reveal the Secret to Higher IQ
New research suggests that the layer of insulation coating neural wiring in the brain plays a critical role in determining intelligence. In addition, the quality of this insulation appears to be largely genetically determined, providing further support for the idea that IQ is partly inherited. The findings, which result from a detailed study of twins’ brains, hint at how ever-improving brain-imaging technology could shed light on some of our most basic characteristics. “The study answers some very fundamental questions about how the brain expresses intelligence,” says Philip Shaw, a child psychiatrist at the National Institute of Mental Health, in Bethesda, MD, who was not involved in the research. The neural wires that transmit electrical messages from cell to cell in the brain are coated with a fatty layer called myelin. Thompson and his colleagues took DTI scans of 92 pairs of fraternal and identical twins. Related:  BrainG Factor*

A New Treatment for Alzheimer's? A drug commonly used to treat arthritis caused a dramatic and rapid improvement in patients with Alzheimer’s disease, according to physicians in California. However, scientists and others not involved in the work worry that the report, which was based on trials in a few patients and hasn’t been independently confirmed, may offer little more than false hope for Alzheimer’s sufferers and their families. Alzheimer’s patients injected with the anti-inflammatory drug etanercept–marketed as Enbrel–showed dramatic improvements in their functioning within minutes, according to Edward Tobinick, director of the Institute for Neurological Research, a private medical facility in Los Angeles where the patients were treated, and an assistant clinical professor of medicine at the University of California, Los Angeles. “The patients improve literally before your eyes,” says Tobinick, who began using etanercept in Alzheimer’s patients three years ago.

Finding the Core of the Brain The iconic image of the brain is a misshapen, yellowish lump. Existing technology can show which parts of the lump light up when people think, but a real understanding of how the brain works demands a better picture of the nerve fibers that ferry electrical signals between brain cells. Those fibers, however, are so small and tangled that researchers haven’t been able to see them clearly. Now, an international team of scientists has combined a new variation on magnetic resonance imaging with mathe­matical analysis to generate the first detailed map of the network of connections in the human cortex, the part of the brain responsible for higher-order thinking. Diffusion spectrum imaging–which tracks water mole­cules moving along nerve fibers–gave the scientists a wiring map of the cortex, revealing points where multiple nerve fibers converged. The scientists then used a mathematical technique to repeatedly prune away the connection points with the fewest links.

Average IQ in US and 80 other nations The average IQ in the United States is usually set at 100. Groups within the US score different average IQ's, such as 115 for college grads or 85 for African-Americans. Similarly, average IQ varies from country to country, shown in the 2002 book IQ and the Wealth of Nations (sets Britain at 100): The top 5 nations above were also the top scorers (different order) in 8th grade math and science in 2003. See also how major nations' 15 year old school children scored in Math, Science, and Reading in PISA 2006 testing Click for list of IQ, income per person, and corruption index for 127 nations, Click for: - possible causes of IQ differences among nations The book's authors Lynn (psychology, U. of Ulster) and Vanhanen (political science, U. of Helsinki) analyzed 168 national IQ studies. Comments by a reviewer: "This brilliantly conceived, superbly-written, path-breaking book, does for the global study of economic prosperity what Herrnstein and Murray's (1994) The Bell Curve did for the USA.

Mind-to-mind thought talking possible by 2030, scientist says Today we enjoy basic conversations with our smart phone, desktop PC, games console, TV and soon, our car; but voice recognition, many believe, should not be viewed as an endgame technology. Although directing electronics with voice and gestures may be considered state-of-the-art today, we will soon be controlling entertainment and communications equipment not by talking or waving; but just by thinking! Forget Siri, if future-thinking researchers have their way, your brain could soon be chatting away on the phone. Enter University of Reading's Dr. In 1998, Warwick implanted a transmitter in his arm enabling him to control doors and other devices. Next, Warwick implanted a chip in his wife Irena's arm, linking their brains together through the Internet. The goal of much of this research is to help patients rendered voiceless by strokes or other ailments speak their thoughts directly, much like Stephen Hawking, the famed physicist who speaks only with the aid of a computer synthesizer.

Theories of Intelligence - Overview of Theories of Intelligence What exactly is intelligence? How do researchers define and measure this mental quality? While intelligence is one of the most talked about subjects in psychology, there is no standard definition of what exactly constitutes 'intelligence.' Some researchers have suggested that intelligence is a single, general ability while other believe that intelligence encompasses a range of aptitudes, skills, and talents. How Do Psychologists Define Intelligence? Intelligence has been an important and controversial topic throughout psychology's history. continue reading below our video Loaded: 0% Progress: 0% At various points throughout recent history, researchers have proposed some different definitions of intelligence. Learn. Intelligence involves some different mental abilities including logic, reasoning, problem-solving and planning. While the subject of intelligence is one of the largest and most heavily researched, it is also one of the topics that generates the greatest controversy. Louis L.

First Alzheimer’s Treatment to Fully Restore Memory Functionality As anyone who has seen what Alzheimer’s can do to a person will tell you, it’s not pretty, it’s not fun and it’s one of the most difficult diseases to deal with for both parties. It’s difficult to watch those you love grow older, but when they begin forgetting everything and everyone around them it can be just as damaging to those around them. What makes this disease such a problem is that there have been no significant advances in curing it or reversing its effects since the initial discovery in 1906. The scientists and researchers from the Queensland Brain Institute at the University of Queensland have been working diligently to discover something that would help, and it appears they may have now found a viable treatment. To the best of our current knowledge about Alzheimer’s is that it’s brought on by the buildup of two different types of neural plaques – neurofibrillary clusters and amyloid plaques, both stemming from different proteins.

The Brain Unveiled A new imaging method that offers an unprece­dented view of ­complex neural structures could help explain the workings of the brain and shed light on neurological diseases. Interactive Tools The three tools below and on the next two pages show data gathered in different ways from a living human volunteer. In each image, the brain is viewed from the back at a three-quarter profile, with the volunteer’s eyes pointed back and toward the right. In this interactive tool, only the fibers that intersect a given vertical plane are shown in each still image. Visualizing only a subset of the brain’s densely packed neural fibers allows individual networks to be studied in greater detail.

Low IQ & Conservative Beliefs Linked to Prejudice | Racism, Bias & Politics | Right-Wing and Left-Wing Ideology There's no gentle way to put it: People who give in to racism and prejudice may simply be dumb, according to a new study that is bound to stir public controversy. The research finds that children with low intelligence are more likely to hold prejudiced attitudes as adults. These findings point to a vicious cycle, according to lead researcher Gordon Hodson, a psychologist at Brock University in Ontario. Low-intelligence adults tend to gravitate toward socially conservative ideologies, the study found. Those ideologies, in turn, stress hierarchy and resistance to change, attitudes that can contribute to prejudice, Hodson wrote in an email to LiveScience. "Prejudice is extremely complex and multifaceted, making it critical that any factors contributing to bias are uncovered and understood," he said. Controversy ahead The findings combine three hot-button topics. Brains and bias As suspected, low intelligence in childhood corresponded with racism in adulthood. A study of averages

Development of an auditory test battery for young children: a pilot study; International Journal of Audiology - 43(6):Pages 330-338 - Informa Healthcare Original Article Development of an auditory test battery for young children: a pilot study 2004, Vol. 43, No. 6 , Pages 330-338 (doi:10.1080/14992020400050042) Martin H. P. 1Audiological Department of Sint Marie, Eindhoven, The Netherlands 2Department of Otorhinolaryngology, University Medical Centre Nijmegen, Nijmegen, The Netherlands This article describes the development and results of a pilot study with a recently developed auditory test battery for 4-6-year-old Dutch children. Sumario Este arti´culo describe el desarrollo y los resultados de un estudio piloto reciente sobre una bateri´a de pruebas auditivas para nin˜os holandeses de 4 a 6 an˜os.

smart-drugs Mapping the Brain on a Massive Scale A massive new project to scan the brains of 1,200 volunteers could finally give scientists a picture of the neural architecture of the human brain and help them understand the causes of certain neurological and psychological diseases. The National Institutes of Health announced $40 million in funding this month for the five-year effort, dubbed the Human Connectome Project. Scientists will use new imaging technologies, some still under development, to create both structural and functional maps of the human brain. The project is novel in its size; most brain-imaging studies have looked at tens to hundreds of brains. Scanning so many people will shed light on the normal variability within the brain structure of healthy adults, which will in turn provide a basis for examining how neural “wiring” differs in such disorders as autism and schizophrenia.

g factor (psychometrics) The g factor (short for "general factor") is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities. It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance at one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to his or her performance at other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the between-individual variance in IQ test performance, and IQ scores are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor.[1] The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general mental ability, or simply intelligence are often used interchangeably to refer to the common core shared by cognitive tests.[2] The existence of the g factor was originally proposed by the English psychologist Charles Spearman in the early years of the 20th century. Mental tests may be designed to measure different aspects of cognition.