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Brain Images Reveal the Secret to Higher IQ

Brain Images Reveal the Secret to Higher IQ
New research suggests that the layer of insulation coating neural wiring in the brain plays a critical role in determining intelligence. In addition, the quality of this insulation appears to be largely genetically determined, providing further support for the idea that IQ is partly inherited. The findings, which result from a detailed study of twins’ brains, hint at how ever-improving brain-imaging technology could shed light on some of our most basic characteristics. “The study answers some very fundamental questions about how the brain expresses intelligence,” says Philip Shaw, a child psychiatrist at the National Institute of Mental Health, in Bethesda, MD, who was not involved in the research. The neural wires that transmit electrical messages from cell to cell in the brain are coated with a fatty layer called myelin. Thompson and his colleagues took DTI scans of 92 pairs of fraternal and identical twins.

http://www.technologyreview.com/news/412678/brain-images-reveal-the-secret-to-higher-iq/

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Decoding spectrotemporal features of overt and covert speech from the human cortex Introduction Mental imagery produces experiences and neural activation patterns similar to actual perception. For instance, thinking of moving a limb activates the motor cortex, internal object visualization activates the visual cortex, with similar effects observed for each sensory modality (Roth et al., 1996; Kosslyn et al., 2001; Kosslyn, 2005; Stevenson and Case, 2005). Auditory imagery is defined as the mental representation of sound perception in the absence of external auditory stimulation. Average IQ in US and 80 other nations The average IQ in the United States is usually set at 100. Groups within the US score different average IQ's, such as 115 for college grads or 85 for African-Americans. Similarly, average IQ varies from country to country, shown in the 2002 book IQ and the Wealth of Nations (sets Britain at 100):

Enrollment For Phase 3 Trial Evaluating Azeliragon in Treatment of Patients with Mild Alzheimer's Disease Enrollment of the first patients into STEADFAST (Single Trial Evaluating Alzheimer's Disease Following Addition to Symptomatic Therapy), vTv's Phase 3 placebo controlled trial of azeliragon, an oral antagonist of the Receptor for Advanced Glycation Endproducts (RAGE) for treatment of mild Alzheimer's disease has begun. Phase 3 begins following a Phase 2 trial that demonstrated positive results in slowing cognitive decline with 5 mg/day of azeliragon in patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer's Disease. STEADFAST is a randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled Phase 3 study that is investigating the efficacy of Azeliragon as a potential disease modifying therapy for patients with mild Alzheimer's disease. The trial targets enrollment of 800 patients in the United States and Canada who will receive 18 months of treatment. The protocol is being conducted following agreement with FDA under the Special Protocol Assessment (SPA) process.

Low IQ & Conservative Beliefs Linked to Prejudice There's no gentle way to put it: People who give in to racism and prejudice may simply be dumb, according to a new study that is bound to stir public controversy. The research finds that children with low intelligence are more likely to hold prejudiced attitudes as adults. These findings point to a vicious cycle, according to lead researcher Gordon Hodson, a psychologist at Brock University in Ontario. Low-intelligence adults tend to gravitate toward socially conservative ideologies, the study found. Those ideologies, in turn, stress hierarchy and resistance to change, attitudes that can contribute to prejudice, Hodson wrote in an email to LiveScience.

Use of vitamin E by patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease slows functional decline Among patients with mild to moderate Alzheimer disease, a daily dosage of 2,000 IUs of vitamin E, compared to placebo, was effective in slowing functional decline and in reducing caregiver time in assisting patients, according to a study appearing in the January 1 issue of JAMA. Alpha tocopherol, a fat-soluble vitamin (E) and antioxidant, has been studied in patients with moderately severe Alzheimer disease (AD) and in participants with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) but has not been studied in patients with mild to moderate AD. In patients with moderately severe AD, vitamin E was shown to be effective in slowing clinical progression. The drug memantine has been shown to be effective in patients with AD and moderately severe dementia, according to background information in the article.

g factor (psychometrics) The g factor (short for "general factor") is a construct developed in psychometric investigations of cognitive abilities. It is a variable that summarizes positive correlations among different cognitive tasks, reflecting the fact that an individual's performance at one type of cognitive task tends to be comparable to his or her performance at other kinds of cognitive tasks. The g factor typically accounts for 40 to 50 percent of the between-individual variance in IQ test performance, and IQ scores are frequently regarded as estimates of individuals' standing on the g factor.[1] The terms IQ, general intelligence, general cognitive ability, general mental ability, or simply intelligence are often used interchangeably to refer to the common core shared by cognitive tests.[2] The existence of the g factor was originally proposed by the English psychologist Charles Spearman in the early years of the 20th century.

fpsyt.2015 Introduction Auditory beat stimulation (ABS) has long been of interest for a wide array of applications, ranging from investigating the auditory steady-state response (ASSR) and measuring audiometric parameters in the brain, to understanding mechanisms of sound localization (1). In addition to this, a few studies also suggest that ABS can be used to modulate cognition (2), to reduce anxiety levels, as well as to enhance mood states (3). Types of Intelligence-IQ, EQ,MQ,BQ Howard Gardner’s seven types of intelligence guide us in selecting child specific teaching methods and career. There are other types of intelligence which parents and teachers should develop in children, to prepare them to face the world independently. Earlier psychologists termed this as “Social intelligence”- the ability to get along with other people. Usually we feel that a child with a high IQ (Intelligence Quotient- measurement of intelligence) will have a bright future. But there are many examples in the real world where we find that people who had been average students are more succesful and happy with their life and career. This is because when a person enters the professional world independently, she/he is faced with myriad situations and people dealing which is not taught in regular school syllabus.

fpsyt.2014 Introduction In recent decades, our appreciation of the complexity of the brain has deepened immensely, as has our understanding of how it performs key functions. In the face of such complexity, and given the rising cost of neuropsychiatric illness (1), an intriguing question is whether we can promote further understanding, and in some cases enhancement, of the typical and atypical brain by targeted modulation of its activity. Notably, transcranial alternating current stimulation (tACS) – which involves transcranial application of weak sinusoidal electrical currents (2) – seems ideally suited to address this question, as it has been demonstrated to modulate endogenous oscillatory electrical activity (3), enhance cognitive functions (4–7), and provide support in neurological disease (8, 9).

Theory of multiple intelligences The theory of multiple intelligences is a theory of intelligence that differentiates it into specific (primarily sensory) "modalities", rather than seeing intelligence as dominated by a single general ability. This model was proposed by Howard Gardner in his 1983 book Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences. Gardner articulated seven criteria for a behavior to be considered an intelligence.[1] These were that the intelligences showed: potential for brain isolation by brain damage, place in evolutionary history, presence of core operations, susceptibility to encoding (symbolic expression), a distinct developmental progression, the existence of savants, prodigies and other exceptional people, and support from experimental psychology and psychometric findings.

Eating green leafy vegetables keeps mental abilities sharp Something as easy as adding more spinach, kale, collards and mustard greens to your diet could help slow cognitive decline, according to new research. The study also examined the nutrients responsible for the effect, linking vitamin K consumption to slower cognitive decline for the first time. "Losing one's memory or cognitive abilities is one of the biggest fears for people as they get older," said Martha Clare Morris, Sc.D., assistant provost for community research at Rush University Medical Center and leader of the research team.

Intelligent people have 'unnatural' preferences and values that are novel in human evolution More intelligent people are significantly more likely to exhibit social values and religious and political preferences that are novel to the human species in evolutionary history. Specifically, liberalism and atheism, and for men (but not women), preference for sexual exclusivity correlate with higher intelligence, a new study finds. The study, published in the March 2010 issue of the peer-reviewed scientific journal Social Psychology Quarterly, advances a new theory to explain why people form particular preferences and values.

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